Value Chain Framework
(Porter)

Centro de Conhecimento



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Resumo

O framework de Value Chain do Porter de Michael é um modelo que ajude analisar as atividades específicas com que as empresa podem criar o valor e as vantagem de o competidor.


As atividades de Value Chain

  • Modelo do framework de Value ChainAtividades preliminares (linha funções)
    • Logística Inbound. Inclui a recepção, armazenando, controle de inventário, planeamento do transporte.
    • Operações. Inclui atividades fazer à máquina, empacotar, de conjunto, de manutenção de equipamento, testar e todas outras valor-criar que transformam as entradas no produto final.
    • Logística Outbound. As atividades requeridas para começar o producto nos clientes: armazenando, fulfillment do pedido, transporte, gerência de distribuição.
    • Introduzir no mercado e vendas. As atividades associaram com começar compradores comprar o produto, incluindo: seleção de canaleta, anunciar, promotion, vender, fixar o preço, gerência de varejo, etc.
    • Serviço. As atividades que mantêm e realçam o valor do produto, incluindo: sustentação de cliente, serviços de reparo, instalação, treinamento, peças de reposição gerência, promover, etc.
  • Atividades da sustentação (funções da equipe de funcionários, overhead)
    • Obtenção. Obtenção de materiais crus, de prestar serviços de manutenção, de peças de reposição, de edifícios, de máquinas, etc.
    • Desenvolvimento da tecnologia. Inclui o desenvolvimento da tecnologia para suportar as atividades da corrente de valor. Como: Pesquisa e desenvolvimento, automatização Process, projeto, redesign.
    • Gerência de recurso humano. As atividades associaram com recrutar, o desenvolvimento (instrução), a retenção e a compensação de empregados e de gerente.
    • Infrastructure da empresa. Inclui legal da gerência geral, planear gerência, finanças, contabilidade, casos públicos, gerência da qualidade, etc.

Criando uma vantagem do custo baseada na corrente de valor

Uma empresa pode criar uma vantagem do custo:

  • reduzindo o custo de atividades individuais da corrente de valor, ou
  • reconfigurando a corrente de valor.

Anote que uma vantagem do custo pode ser criada reduzindo os custos das atividades preliminares, mas também reduzindo os custos das atividades da sustentação. Recentemente houve muitas companhias que conseguiram uma vantagem do custo pelo uso inteligente da tecnologia de informação.


Uma vez que a corrente de valor foi definida, uma análise de custo pode ser executada atribuindo custos às atividades da corrente de valor. O Porter identificou 10 fatores causando custados relacionados às atividades da corrente de valor:

  1. Economias de escala.
  2. Aprendizagem.
  3. Utilização da capacidade.
  4. Enlaces entre atividades.
  5. Interrelationships entre unidades de negócio.
  6. Grau de integração vertical.
  7. Sincronismo da entrada do mercado.
  8. Política da empresa do custo ou do differentiation.
  9. Posição geográfica.
  10. Fatores Institutional (regulamento, atividade da união, impostos, etc.).

Uma empresa desenvolve uma vantagem do custo controlando estes fatores causando mais melhor do que seus concorrentes. Uma vantagem do custo também pode ser perseguida por “Reconfiguring” a corrente de valor. O “Reconfiguration” significa mudanças estruturais como: um processo de produção novo, canaletas de distribuição novas, ou vendas diferentes aproxima-se.


Normalmente, Value Chain de uma companhia é conectado a outras correntes de valor e é parte de Value Chain maior. Desenvolver umas vantagem de o competidor depende também de como eficientemente você pode analisar e controlar Value Chain inteiro. Esta idéia é chame: Supply Chain Management. Alguns povos argumentam que a rede é realmente uma palavra melhor para descrever o formulário físico de correntes de valor: Redes do valor.


Livro: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage


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Compare com: Cinco Forças PorterPorter Competitive Advantage  |  Diamond Model do Porter  |  Parenting Advantage  |  Core Competence  |  BCG Matrix  |  Growth Phases  |  Distinctive Capabilities  |  Organizational Configurations  |  3o Logística do partido (3PL)  |  Outsourcing  |  Just-in-time  |  Bricks and Clicks  |  Value Stream Mapping  |  Delta Model  |  Vertical Integration  |  Horizontal Integration  |  Vendor Managed Inventory  |  Modelo de Kraljic


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