Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]为新的CEOs
(Michael Porter)

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总结

《新任CEO面临的七大惊奇》(Seven Surprises for New CEOs)是Michael Porter、Jay Lorsch及Nitin Nohria三位学者共同发表在2004年10月刊的《哈佛商业评论》上的一篇文章。


作为一名新上任的CEO,你或许会以为自己终于把制定战略的大权紧握在手了, 拥有了呼风唤雨的绝对权威,或许你还以为这下子可以全心全意地搞经营了。 如果你把CEO这个职位想得这么简单,那么,现在你最好醒一醒了。 你肩负着公司成败的全部责任, 却无法掌控决定成败的大部分因素; 你在公司里拥有绝对的权威,却不得不小心翼翼地使用这些权力。

Porter、Lorsch和Nohria发现:不管一个CEO有过什么样的背景,即便他原来是负责公司重大业务的顶尖角色,若论做CEO,他的种种经历都嫌不足。


他们认为新CEO们所面临的最常见的七大惊奇分别是:

  1. CEO管不了公司的经营。 内外各种群体的各种不同需求,一定会让CEO大吃一惊。 由于忙于应付员工、客户、股东、股东、分析师、董事、行业团体、政客等不同群体,CEO已经无暇顾及经营上的事,对公司的日常运营生出一种疏离感。
  2. CEO直接下命令的代价很高。 新CEO会发现靠权力来单方面地发布命令,或者草率地否决经过组织层层审批才提交上来的建议,将付出惨重的代价,因为这样会挫伤高级经理的士气,削弱他的威信。 另外,CEO不要打算事必躬亲,对所有提议都要行使最后的决定权,除非他精力旺盛,具有超人的工作激情。那些提议要在送到他面前时,已经处理掉了下属能够解决的表面问题。 CEO应该参与的是那些具有战略意义和重要性的讨论和决议,给出他的反馈意见和个人态度。
  3. CEO很难了解到真实情况。 让CEO想不到的是:虽然每天信息都洪水般地向他们涌来,但他们却很难获得可靠的信息。 到达高层的信息往往是经过过滤的,这种过滤有时候是用心良苦,有时候却动机不纯。总之,CEO不得不从外部寻求反馈意见才能更准确地评估自己企业的实际情况。
  4. CEO总是会发出某种讯息。 新CEO们没有意识到,他们的一言一行,不管多么微不足道,也不管有心无心,都会立刻被夸大并传播开来,有时还会被完全曲解。 比较: Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]
  5. CEO不是老板。 新上任的CEO们还以为自己终于掌控了公司的最高权力,却没想到还得向董事会汇报, 最终掌权的是董事会, 不是CEO。
  6. 目标不是要取悦股东。 新任CEO一走马上任,常常错误地以为自己的主要职责就是让股东们高兴,长远战略就是要提升公司股票的价值。 殊不知以股东们的认可为目标并非对公司最有利,合乎股东胃口的行动和战略、成长期望、股票价格等等,对公司的最终竞争地位并不一定有益处。 比较: Moral Purpose[道德目的]
  7. CEO仍然是普通人。 人们往往会忽视了新CEO也会有普通人那种平凡的愿望、恐惧和弱点。CEO们自己必须有意识地抵制盲目自大的情绪,要意识到除了公司以外,与自己联系的还有家庭、社区, 要避免把自己的整个生命完全消耗在组织里。

这七大惊奇贯穿在一起,为新CEO们提供了一些有益的启示:

  • 首先,CEO必须学会通观全局,而不是只把注意力放在日常经营上。他应该更多地以间接方式发挥自己的领导作用。
  • 其次,CEO必须认识到这个职位并不能带给他领导一切的权利,也不能保证公司上下对他忠心耿耿。他必须不断地赢得并维护自己在道义上的领导权。
  • 最后,CEO还得避免完全陷入公司一把手的这一角色。即使其他人认为他无所不能,他也仍然只是个普通人。只有保持个人的平衡,做到脚踏实地,CEO才能拥有应该有的视野,做出符合公司利益、保证长期繁荣的决策。 (译注:以上译稿参考借鉴了哈佛商评中文摘要内容,在此致谢!)

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