Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]
(Porter)

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高于行业水准。 Porter Michael的Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]解析。

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Competitive Advantage[竞争优势] - Porter

根据Porter的竞争优势(Competitive Advantage)模型,竞争性战略采取进攻性或防守型行动,为企业谋求在行业内的防御地位,从而成功应对各种竞争力量,并为企业赢得超额Return on Investment[投资回报]。 根据Michael Porter,这种行业水准之上的绩效表现就是企业可持续的竞争优势的基础。


竞争优势基本战略类型

  1. 成本领先战略(Cost Leadership
  2. 差异化战略(Differentiation

通过扩大或收缩这两项战略,则形成第三个竞争优势战略

  1. 聚焦集中战略(Focus

竞争优势第一战略: 成本领先(低成本优势)

  • 实现成本领先,意味着企业成为行业内的低成本制造者。
  • 尽管成本领袖依靠低成本实现竞争优势,但它在价格上也要达到平价水平,至少也应该结合使用差异化战略。
  • 如果超过一个公司致力于成为行业内的成本领导者,那将是一场灾难。
  • 价格领导优势往往通过经济规模来实现。

竞争优势第二战略: 差异化

  • 实现差异化,意味着企业在行业内占据独一无二、无人取代的地位,并且广泛地被顾客接受和欣赏。
  • 差异化企业也不能忽视其成本地位, 在不影响差异化战略的情况下, 企业应该尽可能降低成本; 在差异化领域,产品成本应该至少低于企业从买方手中收取的价格溢价。
  • 可以实现差异化的领域有: 产品、渠道、销售、市场、服务、企业形象,等等。

Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]第三战略: 聚焦集中

  • 实现聚焦集中,意味着企业成为某一细分市场或行业中的最佳企业。
  • 两个变形: 集中成本和集中差异化。

力争中游

  • 对于那些利润绩效低于行业平均水平的企业来说,这个方子是开给他们的。
  • 只要行业整体水平表现不错,即便是中游企业的利润回报也是比较诱人的。
  • 企业选择余地很小。
  • 对那些运用聚焦战略的企业来说,最危险的事情莫过于成功之后开始忽视他们所聚焦的对象。 他们必须寻找新的聚焦对象, 而不是放任他们的聚焦战略效能减弱。

《竞争策略》一书概要

  • 第一部分,Porter结合五力模型讨论分析了行业结构,通过提出三个最基本的竞争优势战略(总成本领先、差异化、聚焦集中),为企业提供了一个非常好的架构,进行竞争分析、开展竞争活动、制定针对买家和供货商的战略、进行行业结构分析(战略组、战略地图、运动障碍)以及预测行业周期(产品生命周期、进化过程)等。
  • 第二部分,Porter具体讨论了各种一般性行业环境下的竞争战略。 例如: 如四分五裂的行业(没有真正的市场领导者)、新兴行业、成熟行业、衰退行业以及全球化商业环境。
  • 第三部分,Porter讨论了公司企业可以采用的战略决策。 例如: 垂直整合(前向、后向、合作)、能力扩张、进军新行业等。

参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Strategy [中译本《竞争战略》,华夏出版社,2005] -

参考书: Michael E. Porter - Competitive Advantage [中译本《竞争优势》,华夏出版社,2005] -


竞争优势论坛
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  What are the Risks of a Differentiation Strategy?
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  Focus your Efforts in Building Competitive Advantage
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  Cost and Value in Analysis of Competitive Advantage: 2 Sides of the Same Coin?
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  Competitive Advantage or Die?
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  Case studies in "Cost Leadership"
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  Competitive Advantage in a Monopolistic Market?
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Competitive Advantage 高级帐户
 

Sustained Competitive Advantage

As claimed by M. Porter the only way to sustain...
Usage (application)Industry Competitiveness
 
 
 

Not Generic Strategies...:

All the following categeories are NOT generic s...
Usage (application)Pseudo Strategies!
 
 
 

Differentiation and 5 Forces

A differentiation strategy usually requires consis...
Usage (application)Influence of Differentiation
 
 
 

Low-Cost Strategy

The main Risks of a Low-Cost Strategy are:<...
Usage (application)Pitfalls
 
 
 

Focus Strategy

The main Risks of a Focus Strategy are:
...
Usage (application)Pitfalls
 
 
 

Differentiation Strategy

Differentiation strategies tend to work best in fo...
Usage (application)When to apply
 
 
 

Extreme Customer Trust as a Source of Competitive Advantage

Many companies are already highlighting the import...
Usage (application)Competitive Advantage, CRM, Customer Loyalty, Customer Intimacy
 
 
 

The Key Role of Strategists in Creating Competitive Advantage

Most organizational performance theories assume th...
Usage (application)Business Strategy, Corporate Strategy, Competitive Advantage, Strategy Education
 
 
 

Knowledge as Competitive Advantage

In an interview of Tomas Friedman to Hani Iskander...
Usage (application)The New Form of Advantange
 
 
 

Factors to Create a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

In HBR article What is strategy, Nov-Dec 1996, M...
Usage (application)Porter's SCA Factors
 
 

相关资料 - 竞争优势 高级帐户
 

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比较: Value Chain[价值链]  |  Value Disciplines[价值信条]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Rule of Three[三强鼎立法则]  |  Strategic Types[战略类型]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  Acquisition Integration Approaches[收购整合法]  |  Diamond Model[钻石模型]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Experience Curve[经验曲线]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]


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