Organizational Learning

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Resumo
Chris Argyris Organizational Learning

Que é Organizational Learning? Definição

Chris Argyris e Donald Schön (1978) definiram a aprendizagem organizational (OL) como: “a deteção e a correção do erro”. Fiol e Lyles definem mais tarde a aprendizagem como “o processo de melhorar ações com o conhecimento melhor e da compreensão” (1985). Dodgson descreve Organizational Learning como: As empresa da maneira constroem, suplementam, e organizam o conhecimento e as rotinas em torno de suas atividades e dentro de suas culturas e adaptam e desenvolvem a eficiência organizational melhorando o uso das habilidades largas de seus workforces. (1993). Huber indica que aprender ocorre em uma organização “se com seu processar da informação, a escala de seus [organização] comportamentos potenciais for mudada” (1991).


“Uma organização de aprendizagem” é uma empresa que construa purposefully estruturas e estratégias, para realçar e maximize Organizational Learning (Dodgson, 1993). O conceito de uma organização de aprendizagem tornou-se popular desde que as organizações querem ser mais adaptable mudar. Aprender é um conceito dinâmico e emfatiza a natureza continuamente em mudança das organizações. O foco está deslocando gradualmente da aprendizagem individual à aprendizagem organizational. Aprender é essencial para o crescimento dos indivíduos; é ingualmente importante para organizações. Desde indivíduos dê forma ao volume da organização, devem estabelecer os formulários e os processos necessários para permitir a aprendizagem organizational a fim facilitar a mudança.


OL é mais do que a soma das partes da aprendizagem do indivíduo (Dodgson, 1993; Fiol & Lyles, 1985). Uma organização não perde para fora em suas abilidades de aprendizagem quando os membros deixam a organização. A aprendizagem Organizational contribui à memória organizational. Assim, os sistemas de aprendizagem influenciam não somente membros imediatos, mas também os membros futuros, o venceu à acumulação das história, as experiências, as normas, e as histórias. Criar uma organização de aprendizagem é somente metade da solução a um problema challenging (Prahalad & Hamel, 1994). Ingualmente importante é a criação de uma organização unlearning que essencialmente meios que a organização deve se esquecer de algum de seu passado. Assim, aprender ocorre entre tais fatores opondo (Dodgson, 1993).
 

Três tipos de aprendizagem organizational (Argyris e Schön)

  1. Single-loop learning. Isto ocorre quando os erros estão detectados e corrigidos e as empresa continuam com seus políticas e objetivos atuais. De acordo com Dodgson (1993), Single-loop learning pode ser igualado às atividades que adicionam à conhecimento-base ou os competences ou as rotinas empresa-específicas sem alterar a natureza fundamental das atividades da organização. Single-loop learning foi consultado também a como “a aprendizagem Lower-Level” por Fiol e por Lyles (1985), “a aprendizagem adaptável” ou “lidar” por Senge (1990), e “aprendizagem Non estratégica” por Mason ('93).
  2. Double-loop learning. Isto ocorre quando, além à deteção e à correção dos erros, a organização questiona e modifica seus normas, procedimentos, políticas, e objetivos existentes. Double-loop learning envolve mudar a conhecimento-base da organização ou os competences ou as rotinas empresa-específicas (Dodgson, 1993). Double-loop learning é chame também “aprendizagem Higher-Level” por Fiol e por Lyles (1985), “aprendizagem Generative” ou “aprendizagem expandir potencialidades de uma organização” por Senge (1990), e “aprendizagem estratégica” por Mason (1993). A aprendizagem estratégica é definida como “o processo por que uma organização faz o sentido de suas circunstâncias nas maneiras que broaden a escala dos objetivos que pode perseguir ou na escala dos recursos e das ações disponíveis a ela para processar estes objetivos.” (Mason, 1993:843)
  3. Deutero-learning. Isto ocorre quando as organizações aprendem como realizar Single-loop learning e Double-loop learning. Os primeiros dois formulários da aprendizagem não ocorrerão se as organizações não estiverem cientes que aprender deve ocorrer. Estando ciente do ignorance motivates a aprendizagem (Nevis e outros., 1995). Isto significa identificar as orientação ou os estilos de aprendizagem, e os processos e as estruturas (que facilitam fatores) requeridas para promover aprender. Nevis e outros., (1995) identificam sete estilos de aprendizagem diferentes e dez fatores facilitando diferentes que influenciam a aprendizagem. Por exemplo, um dos fatores facilitando está identificando a abertura do performance entre resultados e o performance real alvejados. Esta consciência faz a organização reconhecer que aprendendo necessidades ocorrer, e que as circunstâncias e os processos apropriados necessitam ser criados. Isto significa também reconhecer o fato que os períodos longos do gabarito positivo ou de uma comunicação boa podem obstruir a aprendizagem (Argyris, 1994).

Double-loop learning e Deutero-learning estão concernidos com porque e como mudar a organização, quando Single-loop learning for concernido com a aceitação da mudança sem as suposições e a opinião subjacentes questionando do núcleo. Dodgson indica que o tipo de Organizational Learning depende também de onde na organização a aprendizagem organizational ocorre. Assim, aprender pode ocorrer em funções diferentes da organização tais como a pesquisa, o desenvolvimento, o projeto, a engenharia, a manufatura, o marketing, a administração, e as vendas.


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Dicas de Especialistas

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Conhecimentos avançados sobre Organizational Learning (Inglês). Aqui você encontrará conselhos profissionais de especialistas.


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Fontes de Informação

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Várias fontes de informação sobre Organizational Learning. Aqui você encontrará powerpoints, vídeos, notícias, etc. para usar em suas próprias palestras e workshops.


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Compare com: Organizational Memory  |  Bridging Epistemologies  |  Knowledge Management (Collison & Parcell)  |  SECI model  |  Gestalt theory  |  Action Learning  |  Intellectual Capital Rating  |  Levels of Culture  |  Change Phases  |  Organic Organization  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  People CMM  |  MÁGICA  |  Experience Curve  |  Team Management Profile


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