Organization Chart[组织结构图]

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总结

等级式组织结构图 什么是组织结构图? 释义

每个公司都同时具有正式的非正式的组织结构。 一些常见的正式组织结构如:

  • 等级式结构(多为规模较小的、创业型企业所采用)
  • 直线职能式结构
  • 功能式结构部门式结构(基于功能、产品/服务、顾客类型、地理区位)
  • 矩阵式结构(双重汇报体系)

以上这些正式的组织结构关系都可以通过组织结构图来展示,英语称之为Organization ChartOrganizational ChartOrganigramOrganogramOrg Chart,均表示同样的意思。 它能够简洁明了地展示组织内的等级与权力、角色与职责、功能与关系。 组织结构图还有助于帮助新员工了解和认识公司。 (所谓非正式的组织结构是指存在于日常工作中的组织层级之间的真实关系。)



直线职能式组织结构当下,不断有人指责现有组织结构设计存在很多局限和不足。 与此同时,组织构型被披上了不少时髦的外衣,诸如:网络型组织(Networked Organizations),跨国型组织(Transnational Organizations),前后端组织(Front-Back Organizations),无边界组织(Boundaryless Organizations),学习型组织(Learning Organizations)、虚拟型组织(Virtual Organizations)和社会化网络(Social Networks),等等。


然而,对于公司高管来说,组织结构设计仍将是一项极为重要且具有挑战性的工作,因为它对公司的战略营销决策沟通金融投资领导力等各个方面都有着重要影响。 所以,不管组织构型如何发展变化,组织结构图的重要地位是不会改变的,一张简明的图表能够帮助人们快速、准确把握有用信息。 组织结构图或许会在外形上发生些变化,与传统的树型图有所区别。

 

组织结构图的起源。 历史

据猜测,古埃及人在从事大规模公共建设项目的时候,很可能已经掌握并采用了结构图法来组织配置劳工部门。 然而,有史可考的第一张组织结构图很可能晚至1854年才问世,它的编制者是纽约铁路公司的总裁丹尼尔·麦卡伦(Daniel McCallum)。 功能式组织结构图 当时,麦卡伦的公司正负责建筑一条从泽西城到大湖区、贯穿宾州与纽约、全长近500英里的铁路。


麦卡伦认为,在其他条件均等的情况下,这条铁路的每英里建筑成本应该低于那些短程铁路。   然而,事实上这些其他条件却很难等同, 修一条长500英里的铁路,牵涉的方方面面工作肯定要比修50英里铁路复杂得多。 若无高效组织,这条铁路的每英里建筑成本很可能要比那些短程铁路不贱反贵。 为此,麦卡伦编制了一张组织结构图。根据亨利·瓦卢姆·普尔(Henry Varnum Poor)的记载,这是一张树型结构的图表, 其根部代表铁路公司的总裁和高管层, 枝干代表公司的5个职能部门和客运、货运部门, 树叶则分别代表地方票务代理、货运代理、工段长及其他员工,等等。


历史上,组织结构图的诞生被认为是西方工业社会从自然的人治向企业化管理转变的一个重要标志。经此转变,组织能力逐渐成为企业生存竞争的先决条件。


组织结构图的运用 应用

  • 矩阵式组织结构图明确组织内所有人员的角色和职责。
  • 建立等级式职权结构,并以此规范决策程序。
  • 建立政令畅通、有序规范、方法得当的信息沟通渠道。
  • 建立控制机制,如中心化程度、控制覆盖度。 比较: Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]
  • 建立工作合作协调机制。
  • 建立规范的决策程序。
  • 建立特殊的运营程序。

编制组织结构图 流程

《组织设计杠杆》(Levers of Organization Design)一书的作者罗伯特·西蒙斯(Robert Simons)认为,任何一种组织设计的背后都存在以下四种杠杆力量:

  1. 战略(战略决定组织结构)VS 结构(组织设计影响未来战略)

  2. 责任感(眼前的目标)VS 适应性(未来的变化)

  3. 梯状(垂直等级)VS 环状(水平网络)

  4. 利己主义(关注个人) VS 组织使命(关注部门、公司)

比较: 格雷勒的成长阶段和西蒙斯的控制杠杆


组织结构图的优势 优点

  • 简洁明了,具有可预见性。 帮助了解组织功能。
  • 帮助认识组织结构。
  • 明确工作负责人, 及汇报关系和对象。

组织结构图的局限。 缺点

  • 固定静止,灵活性差。 组织是不断成长变化的,要经历不同的成长阶段
  • 对于理解组织内部的真实运作情况,帮助不大。 事实上,组织运营过程中通常存在相当大的混乱,并受一种复杂的臆测与放大机制影响。(参见核心组理论)。
  • 传统的组织结构图对于受外包、信息技术、战略联盟和网络经济等因素影响而不断发生边界变化的现代组织结构无能为力。

参考书: Robert Simons - Levers of Organization Design


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比较: Levers of Control[控制杠杆]  |  14 Principles of Management[14项管理原则]  |  Organizational Configurations[组织构型]  |  Chaos Theory[混沌理论]  |  Growth Phases[成长阶段]  |  Parenting Styles[母合类型]  |  Acquisition Integration Approaches[收购整合法]  |  Organic Organization[有机式组织]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  POSDCORB


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