SECI model[SECI模型]
(Nonaka Takeuchi)

知识中心

   

一个动态的组织知识创造的统一模型。 野中郁次郎和竹内广孝的SECI模型解析。 (‘95)

投稿人: Tom De Geytere

目录

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SECI model[SECI模型] Nonaka Takeuchi什么是SECI模型? 释义

日本著名的管理学教授野中郁次郎(Ikujiro Nonaka)和竹内弘高(Hirotaka Takeuchi)认为,知识创造流程的模型必须要对知识创造的动态特征有深入了解、必须要对流程本身进行有效管理,基于这两点,他们提出了 SECI模型。 SECI模型包括三个组成部分:

  1. SECI
  2. Ba (注:日文“场所”的意思,即整合资讯为知识的场所,包括特定的时间和地点)
  3. 知识资产Knowledge Assets)。

这三个部分处在有机地、动态地互为作用之中。 组织的知识资产在Ba之间被组织成员分享,与此同时,组织成员的个人隐性知识也在Ba之间通过SECI被传递和放大,SECI也就是知识的四种创造历程:

  • 社会化(Socialization
  • 外化(Externalization
  • 组合化(Combination
  • 内在化(Internalization

SECIBa 以及知识资产这三项要素一定要在强有力的组织领导之下,才能持续不断地、动态地实现知识创造, 也就是说,要形成每一位组织成员都能遵从的纪律。


SECI

知识创造是存于隐性知识(Tacit Knowledge)与显性知识(Explicit Knowledge)之间的一个持续的、互动的过程, 并以螺旋式进行,形成四种模式。 当组织规模向上跃进的时候,知识创造的螺旋也会相应变得越来越大,同时触发新的知识创造螺旋(参见右图)。
SECO模型四类别Ba
社会化。 通过面对面的交流、个人经验来分享隐性知识。 一个典型的例子是学徒工作。
外化。 阐释和发展包含于隐性知识中的概念, 这将更加有助于知识沟通。
组合化。 对不同的显性知识进行组合。 一个典型例子是构建模型和范式。
内在化。 将学习与实践紧密结合起来,从而使得外在的显性知识成为个人知识的一部分基础(如心智模型),同时成为组织资产的一部分。


Ba

是一个共享的平台和场所,在其间知识被共享、创造和使用。


右图显示了四种不同类型的Ba,存在于知识创造过程SECI的各个不同阶段。

下面以日本最为成功的便利店“7-11”为例,对Ba的类型进行详细解释。

  • 起源Ba 店铺的公共空间,使人们可以互相交流,店员与顾客进行交流。
  • 对话Ba 店员通过对话,交流隐性知识,产生销售预测。
  • 系统Ba 销售预测的准确性经由销售结果检验,并向店铺及店员提供反馈。
  • 练习Ba 从练习中获得信息,并与实际情况相比较,店员不断提高分析技能和预测能力。
     

知识财产四个类别 知识资产

这是公司为了实现价值创造所必须的独有的资源。 在价值创造过程中,它们既是输入成分,也是输出成分,还是调和力量。


为了有效管理自己的知识创造活动,公司首先要摸清自己的知识资产的库存情况。 知识资产虽可进行分类,但却有些不现实,因为 知识资产是动态的, 新的知识资产将源源不断地从现有知识资产中被创造出来。

 













领导力在SECI过程中的作用,请参见右图。
SECI -领导能力的角色
 

SECI模型的起源。 历史

野中郁次郎和竹内弘高的SECI模型建立在Polanyi(1983)的隐性知识和显性知识的分类基础之上,并从日本企业管理文化的视角出发,对知识创造和知识管理提出了一个新颖的认识。


SECI模型的优势。 优点

  • 认识到知识和知识创造的动态特征。
  • 为知识创造和管理提供了一个有效的架构。

SECI模型的局限。 缺点

  • 建立在对日本组织进行研究的基础之上,过分倚重日本社会的隐性知识。 在日本社会文化中,员工经常为某一个组织服务终身。
  • 理论中提到的知识创造过程是线性特征, 那么有无可能实现跨越式发展? 或者知识创造螺旋进行反方向运动?

参考书: Ikujiro Nonaka, Hirotaka Takeuchi - The Knowledge-Creating Company [中文版书名《创新求胜-智价企业论》,台湾远流出版社,1986] -


SECI模型 小组


小组 (13名成员)


SECI模型论坛  

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