Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论] (McGregor)
Theory Z[Z理论] (Ouchi)

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总结

什么是X理论和Y理论? 释义

美国社会心理学家、麻省理工学院的Douglas McGregor教授在他的《企业的人性层面》(The Human Side of Enterprise,1960)一书中,提出了脍炙人口的X理论和Y理论模型。通过观察管理者处理员工关系的方式,McGregor发现,管理者关于人性的观点是建立在一些假设基础之上的,而管理者又根据这些假设来塑造他们自己对下属的行为方式,于是就提出了两种关于人性的基本假设。
 

 

X理论

Y理论

假设

员工天生不喜欢工作,只要可能,他们就会逃避工作。 员工视工作如休息、娱乐一般自然。 员工投入在工作中的体力和精力与他们花在私人生活中的一样多。
  由于员工不喜欢工作,因此必须采取强制措施或惩罚办法,迫使他们努力工作,完成任务目标。 如果员工对某些工作作出承诺,他们会进行自我指导和自我控制,以完成组织任务。 控制和惩罚并非让员工工作的唯一手段。
  一般员工希望被指挥。 工作满意度是激励员工与确保员工忠诚的关键。
  员工只要有可能就会逃避责任。 员工愿意乐于承担责任。 在适当条件下,大多数员工不仅能够承担责任,而且会主动寻求承担责任。
  一般员工简简单单,安于现状。 员工富有想象力和创造力,不断寻求改变。 他们的灵活性有助于解决工作中出现的问题。

应用

车间工厂、大量生产; 生产工人。 专业服务、知识劳动者; 管理人员、专业人员。

有助于

大规模高效运营。 专业化管理、复杂性问题的参与和解决。

管理方式

独裁式、强硬管理。 参与式、柔性管理。

McGregor教授个人倾向于Y理论,并认为Y理论是一种较好的管理模式,但是,他同时指出,Y理论很难用于大规模生产经营活动。


Z理论 - Ouchi

1980年, 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的William Ouchi教授结合美国和日本的管理实践,在McGregorX理论-Y理论的基础上,提出了Z理论,它具有以下一些特征: 终身雇佣 - 集体决策 - 个人责任 - 较少的评估和提升 - 明确的、规范化的考察与暗示的、非正式控制相结合 - 适度的专业化职业发展轨迹 - 对员工包括其家庭在内的全面关怀。Ouchi认为,生产力建立于组织成员互信的基础上,而非资金或技术,这种互信代表着一种组织文化。这种互信的组织文化将渗透组织的每一个层级,它不仅可以调高组织的生产力,更能够满足员工的自尊。


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X理论-Y理论-Z理论 小组。



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论坛

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X理论-Y理论-Z理论论坛。


Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised indus (...)
10
 
1条评论
Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach (...)
9
 
Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of un (...)
9
 
1条评论
Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also.
One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The (...)
8
 
Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today? (...)
8
 
Participative Management
Managing in today's organization is complex due to the rapid changes in technology, etcetera. In order to remain competi (...)
7
 
1条评论
It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovere (...)
6
 
2条评论
Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and interact. In theory X, it is when their work or personal situ (...)
6
 
Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the Contingency Theory. There is no particular best style of management, but the (...)
5
 
1条评论
McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to (...)
5
 
2条评论
Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should alwa (...)
4
 
Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchi (...)
4
 
Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and (...)
3
 
1条评论
Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action an (...)
2
 
Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian (...)
1
 
Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations.
To wh (...)
1
 
Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance (...)
0
 
No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances (...)
-1
 

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Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situations.I think that it is the best way of management and eco (...)
54
 
1条评论

Theory Z is Rare but Growing
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey research indicates that Z would be a 'yellow' - a systems type per (...)
30
 
2条评论

Theory X and Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they (...)
26
 
1条评论

Work Ethic: Most employees want to work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The (...)
22
 
1条评论

Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cultural backround of the enterprise. In fact, they are two en (...)
19
 
1条评论

Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking.
- In the growing stage of (...)
16
 
1条评论

Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can make a clear distinction between administration and managemen (...)
13
 
4条评论

Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to (...)
7
 
9条评论

In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view th (...)
6
 
5条评论

The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these ex (...)
6
 
4条评论

The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can em (...)
6
 
8条评论

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Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information
An important aspect of McGregor's ideas is his belief that managers who hold either set of assumptions can create self-f (...)

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style
Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency: 1. L - LISTENING: Actively list (...)

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a (...)

Theory X problem

Leadership
McGregor pointed out that a command and control environment is not effective, because it includes lower desires as lever (...)
信息来源

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How to Become a Master Manager?

Introduction to Managing People. Know Thyself
This good introduction presentation is about how to be a Master Manager. By J. S. Osland, D. A. Kolb, I. M. Rubin and M. (...)

Human Motivation

Motivating Employees
Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Motivation. Topics: 1. What is motivation? 2. How do needs motivate peo (...)

Theory X Management Style

Introduction to Motivation, Workshops, Trainings
Hilarious video showcases Theory X methods of motivation to increase productivity. (...)

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
This video is a nice start for any management course. Jobs shares some ideas on managers (in a high-tech environment) an (...)

The X Model of Employee Engagement

Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Amployee Attitude
Organizations aim for success. And so do employees. But individuals (employees, executives, managers) have their own def (...)

How to Achieve Employee Engagement

Employee Empowerment, Employee Participation, Participative Management, Participative Leadership
Tom Peters gives a short, but fundamental advice on how you can accomplish his 3rd and 4th principle (3. Autonomy and En (...)

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