Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论] (McGregor)
Theory Z[Z理论] (Ouchi)

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强硬管理,还是柔性管理? Douglas McGregor的X理论、Y理论解析。 (‘60)。 William Ouchi的Z理论解析。 (‘81)

目录

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什么是X理论和Y理论? 释义

美国社会心理学家、麻省理工学院的Douglas McGregor教授在他的《企业的人性层面》(The Human Side of Enterprise,1960)一书中,提出了脍炙人口的X理论和Y理论模型。通过观察管理者处理员工关系的方式,McGregor发现,管理者关于人性的观点是建立在一些假设基础之上的,而管理者又根据这些假设来塑造他们自己对下属的行为方式,于是就提出了两种关于人性的基本假设。
 

 

X理论

Y理论

假设

员工天生不喜欢工作,只要可能,他们就会逃避工作。 员工视工作如休息、娱乐一般自然。 员工投入在工作中的体力和精力与他们花在私人生活中的一样多。
  由于员工不喜欢工作,因此必须采取强制措施或惩罚办法,迫使他们努力工作,完成任务目标。 如果员工对某些工作作出承诺,他们会进行自我指导和自我控制,以完成组织任务。 控制和惩罚并非让员工工作的唯一手段。
  一般员工希望被指挥。 工作满意度是激励员工与确保员工忠诚的关键。
  员工只要有可能就会逃避责任。 员工愿意乐于承担责任。 在适当条件下,大多数员工不仅能够承担责任,而且会主动寻求承担责任。
  一般员工简简单单,安于现状。 员工富有想象力和创造力,不断寻求改变。 他们的灵活性有助于解决工作中出现的问题。

应用

车间工厂、大量生产; 生产工人。 专业服务、知识劳动者; 管理人员、专业人员。

有助于

大规模高效运营。 专业化管理、复杂性问题的参与和解决。

管理方式

独裁式、强硬管理。 参与式、柔性管理。

McGregor教授个人倾向于Y理论,并认为Y理论是一种较好的管理模式,但是,他同时指出,Y理论很难用于大规模生产经营活动。


Z理论 - Ouchi

1980年, 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的William Ouchi教授结合美国和日本的管理实践,在McGregorX理论-Y理论的基础上,提出了Z理论,它具有以下一些特征: 终身雇佣 - 集体决策 - 个人责任 - 较少的评估和提升 - 明确的、规范化的考察与暗示的、非正式控制相结合 - 适度的专业化职业发展轨迹 - 对员工包括其家庭在内的全面关怀。Ouchi认为,生产力建立于组织成员互信的基础上,而非资金或技术,这种互信代表着一种组织文化。这种互信的组织文化将渗透组织的每一个层级,它不仅可以调高组织的生产力,更能够满足员工的自尊。


X理论-Y理论-Z理论 小组


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