Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论] (McGregor)
Theory Z[Z理论] (Ouchi)

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强硬管理,还是柔性管理? Douglas McGregor的X理论、Y理论解析。 (‘60)。 William Ouchi的Z理论解析。 (‘81)


什么是X理论和Y理论? 释义

美国社会心理学家、麻省理工学院的Douglas McGregor教授在他的《企业的人性层面》(The Human Side of Enterprise,1960)一书中,提出了脍炙人口的X理论和Y理论模型。通过观察管理者处理员工关系的方式,McGregor发现,管理者关于人性的观点是建立在一些假设基础之上的,而管理者又根据这些假设来塑造他们自己对下属的行为方式,于是就提出了两种关于人性的基本假设。
 

 

X理论

Y理论

假设

员工天生不喜欢工作,只要可能,他们就会逃避工作。 员工视工作如休息、娱乐一般自然。 员工投入在工作中的体力和精力与他们花在私人生活中的一样多。
  由于员工不喜欢工作,因此必须采取强制措施或惩罚办法,迫使他们努力工作,完成任务目标。 如果员工对某些工作作出承诺,他们会进行自我指导和自我控制,以完成组织任务。 控制和惩罚并非让员工工作的唯一手段。
  一般员工希望被指挥。 工作满意度是激励员工与确保员工忠诚的关键。
  员工只要有可能就会逃避责任。 员工愿意乐于承担责任。 在适当条件下,大多数员工不仅能够承担责任,而且会主动寻求承担责任。
  一般员工简简单单,安于现状。 员工富有想象力和创造力,不断寻求改变。 他们的灵活性有助于解决工作中出现的问题。

应用

车间工厂、大量生产; 生产工人。 专业服务、知识劳动者; 管理人员、专业人员。

有助于

大规模高效运营。 专业化管理、复杂性问题的参与和解决。

管理方式

独裁式、强硬管理。 参与式、柔性管理。

McGregor教授个人倾向于Y理论,并认为Y理论是一种较好的管理模式,但是,他同时指出,Y理论很难用于大规模生产经营活动。


Z理论 - Ouchi

1980年, 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的William Ouchi教授结合美国和日本的管理实践,在McGregorX理论-Y理论的基础上,提出了Z理论,它具有以下一些特征: 终身雇佣 - 集体决策 - 个人责任 - 较少的评估和提升 - 明确的、规范化的考察与暗示的、非正式控制相结合 - 适度的专业化职业发展轨迹 - 对员工包括其家庭在内的全面关怀。Ouchi认为,生产力建立于组织成员互信的基础上,而非资金或技术,这种互信代表着一种组织文化。这种互信的组织文化将渗透组织的每一个层级,它不仅可以调高组织的生产力,更能够满足员工的自尊。


小组 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论


小组 (38名成员)


论坛 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论  

在这个论坛上,你会发现最近的有趣的讨论。


  Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations (1个反应)
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situa...
 
 
 
 
  Work Ethic: Most employees want to work (1个反应)
I believe that most employees want to work. There will alway...
 
 
 
 
  Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y (1个反应)
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cu...
 
 
 
 
  Growing from Theory X to Z to Y (1个反应)
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inceptio...
 
 
 
 
  Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management (4个反应)
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can m...
 
 
 
 
  Theory Y is a Farce in Practice (1个反应)
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in...
 
 
 
 
  Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its d...
 
 
 
 
  Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man (1个反应)
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, The...
 
 
 
 
  Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements ...
 
 
 
 
  Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern m...
 
 
 
 
  Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the ...
 
 
 
 
  It's Time for Theory Z (2个反应)
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Seve...
 
 
 
 
  In Practice you Need to Combine Theories (5个反应)
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise with...
 
 
 
 
  The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment (4个反应)
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and s...
 
 
 
 
  Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and i...
 
 
 
 
  The Role of Empowerment (8个反应)
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X...
 
 
 
 
  Contigency Management Principle (1个反应)
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the . There is no pa...
 
 
 
 
  McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action (2个反应)
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this ...
 
 
 
 
  Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leader...
 
 
 
 
  Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organizati...
 
 
 
 
  Applying Theory Z in Practice (1个反应)
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to...
 
 
 
 
  Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of pe...
 
 
 
 
  Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X an...
 
 
 
 
  Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (M...
 
 
 
 
  Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened li...
 
 
 
 
  No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior....
 
 
 
 

最佳实践 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论

在这里,您将找到过去最有价值的讨论。


  Theory Z is Rare but Growing (2个反应)
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey resear...
 
 
 
 
  Theory X and Theory Y (1个反应)
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the ...
 
 
 
 
  Applying Theory XY in Practice (9个反应)
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can ...
 
 
 
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory X Theory Y Theory Z

在这里,您将找到专家提供的高质量建议。


 

Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information...
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style...
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations...
 
 
 

Theory X problem

Leadership...
 
 

相关资料 - X理论-Y理论-Z理论

在这里,您将找到powerpoint演示文稿,微观学习视频和更多信息来源。


 

新闻关于理论 McGregor


     
 

新闻关于理论 Ouchi


     
 

视频关于理论 McGregor


     
 

视频关于理论 Ouchi


     
 

简报关于理论 McGregor


     
 

简报关于理论 Ouchi


     
 

更多关于理论 McGregor


     
 

更多关于理论 Ouchi


     

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