Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论] (McGregor)
Theory Z[Z理论] (Ouchi)

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摘要,论坛,最佳做法,专家提示和信息来源。


什么是X理论和Y理论? 释义

美国社会心理学家、麻省理工学院的Douglas McGregor教授在他的《企业的人性层面》(The Human Side of Enterprise,1960)一书中,提出了脍炙人口的X理论和Y理论模型。通过观察管理者处理员工关系的方式,McGregor发现,管理者关于人性的观点是建立在一些假设基础之上的,而管理者又根据这些假设来塑造他们自己对下属的行为方式,于是就提出了两种关于人性的基本假设。
 

 

X理论

Y理论

假设

员工天生不喜欢工作,只要可能,他们就会逃避工作。 员工视工作如休息、娱乐一般自然。 员工投入在工作中的体力和精力与他们花在私人生活中的一样多。
  由于员工不喜欢工作,因此必须采取强制措施或惩罚办法,迫使他们努力工作,完成任务目标。 如果员工对某些工作作出承诺,他们会进行自我指导和自我控制,以完成组织任务。 控制和惩罚并非让员工工作的唯一手段。
  一般员工希望被指挥。 工作满意度是激励员工与确保员工忠诚的关键。
  员工只要有可能就会逃避责任。 员工愿意乐于承担责任。 在适当条件下,大多数员工不仅能够承担责任,而且会主动寻求承担责任。
  一般员工简简单单,安于现状。 员工富有想象力和创造力,不断寻求改变。 他们的灵活性有助于解决工作中出现的问题。

应用

车间工厂、大量生产; 生产工人。 专业服务、知识劳动者; 管理人员、专业人员。

有助于

大规模高效运营。 专业化管理、复杂性问题的参与和解决。

管理方式

独裁式、强硬管理。 参与式、柔性管理。

McGregor教授个人倾向于Y理论,并认为Y理论是一种较好的管理模式,但是,他同时指出,Y理论很难用于大规模生产经营活动。


Z理论 - Ouchi

1980年, 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校的William Ouchi教授结合美国和日本的管理实践,在McGregorX理论-Y理论的基础上,提出了Z理论,它具有以下一些特征: 终身雇佣 - 集体决策 - 个人责任 - 较少的评估和提升 - 明确的、规范化的考察与暗示的、非正式控制相结合 - 适度的专业化职业发展轨迹 - 对员工包括其家庭在内的全面关怀。Ouchi认为,生产力建立于组织成员互信的基础上,而非资金或技术,这种互信代表着一种组织文化。这种互信的组织文化将渗透组织的每一个层级,它不仅可以调高组织的生产力,更能够满足员工的自尊。


X理论-Y理论-Z理论 小组


小组 (40名成员)

X理论-Y理论-Z理论论坛  

关于以下三个最新主题:X理论-Y理论-Z理论。


Why Participative Management is Needed in Today's High Tech World
Managing in today's organization is very complex due to the rapid change in technology. In order to remain competitive m (...)
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Theory X and Y in Nigeria
What are real life situations or applications of theory X and Y in Nigerian leadership today (APC)? Please give Nigerian (...)
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Theory X, Y and Z in Government Organizations
HI. I'd like to know your thoughts on Theories X, Y and Z (McGregor and Ouchi) in governmental organizations. To what e (...)
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X理论-Y理论-Z理论最佳实践

在这里你会找到最有价值的思路和切实可行的建议。


🥇 Decision-making Method in Complex / Conflict Situations
Game theory is the decision making skills in conflict situations.I think that it is the best way of management and eco (...)
54
 
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🥈 Theory Z is Rare but Growing
Spiral Dynamics & Personal & Corporate Values Journey research indicates that Z would be a 'yellow' - a systems type per (...)
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2个反应

 
🥉 Theory X and Theory Y
In 9 out of 10 cases, the employer or leader determines the way workers behave. Workers who are treated as though they (...)
26
 
1个反应

 
Work Ethic: Most employees want to work
I believe that most employees want to work. There will always be a small percentage that will go against the grain. The (...)
22
 
1个反应

 
Influence of Culture on Theory X & Y
I think application of theory x and y also depends on the cultural backround of the enterprise. In fact, they are two en (...)
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Growing from Theory X to Z to Y
- Theory X naturally comes to play at the inception of almost every business undertaking. - In the growing stage of a b (...)
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Theory X and Theory Y: Administration vs. Management
From what can be seen in the summary, in my opinion we can make a clear distinction between administration and managemen (...)
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4个反应

 
Theory Y is a Farce in Practice
I personally do not have much faith that theory Y is real in practice. May be happening in highly professionalised indus (...)
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1个反应

 
Theory Z Explanation
Explain the Theory Z in brief as by little explanation its difficult to judge. Moreover, it is a more practical approach (...)
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Theory X will Always Prevail Cecause it is Innate in Man
As long as an individual or group of individuals exists, Theory X will prevail because we cannot uproot the source of un (...)
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Job Requirements Influence X or Y
Theory X and Y are dependent on the job requirements also. One can't be participative on all situations / jobs. The val (...)
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Contribution for Today?
What is the relevance of theory X and Y theory Z to modern management for today? (...)
8
 
0个反应

 
Applying Theory XY in Practice
These motivational theories are excellent. However, how can we motivate the practicing administrators / bureaucrats to (...)
7
 
9个反应

 
It's Time for Theory Z
Long term employment may be seen as security of tenure. Several years ago, I carried out a study in Exeter and discovere (...)
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In Practice you Need to Combine Theories
It is not possible to put just one theory into practise without borrowing few elements from another. I am of the view th (...)
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The Role of Favoritism in Recruitment
Theory X and Theory Y are dependent too on recruitment and selection processes. When favoritism plays a part in these ex (...)
6
 
4个反应

 
Individual Backgrounds
Theory Y states an ideal way on how people should work and interact. In theory X, it is when their work or personal situ (...)
6
 
0个反应

 
The Role of Empowerment
We will always have X & Y type of people. What can make an X turn into an Y and vice a versa is EMPOWERMENT. If I can em (...)
6
 
8个反应

 
Contigency Management Principle
Theory Y and theory X metamorphose into the . There is no particular best style of management, but the situation and env (...)
5
 
1个反应

 
McGregor's XY Model is not a Model For Action
The real Theory Z is that people don't understand that this XY model is not a model for action. It has been developed to (...)
5
 
2个反应

 
Dress Code, Bold Voice, Self Confidence and Motivation Power
Whenever you try to guide someone, following three leadership factors affect your mission to leadership. You should alwa (...)
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Theory U: The origin of leadership is irrelevant
Individuals at the top, middle, and bottom of the organization could informally personify leadership without a hierarchi (...)
4
 
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Applying Theory Z in Practice
People with enough motivation and empowerment do not need to be coerced to work. The trick is to lay down parameters and (...)
3
 
1个反应

 
Role of Perception and Turbulence
Theory X, Theory Y and Theory Z bring to mind the role of perception and judgmental attributions of a person's action an (...)
2
 
0个反应

 
Threatening Workers does not Work
Workers are suppose to be motivated and not be threatened like in theory X because if you threaten them the performance (...)
0
 
0个反应

 
No Prototypical Behavior
I personally do not believe in prototypical behavior. This means that people act the way they act based on circumstances (...)
-1
 
0个反应

 
Theory X Theory Y Theory Z专家提示(英语)

在这里,您将找到专家的专业建议。


Self-fulfilling Prophesies

Further information (...)
   
 
 
 

LEADER: Best Practices for Effective Leadership Behavior

Leadership Behavior, Leadership Effectiveness, Leadership Style (...)
   
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations (...)
   
 
 
 

Theory X problem

Leadership (...)
   
 
 
 
X理论-Y理论-Z理论信息来源

在这里,您将找到Powerpoint,视频,新闻等可用于您自己的讲座和讲习班。



比较:  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Hawthorne Effect[霍索恩效应]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Hertzberg Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence[卓越管理的八个属性]  |  Five Disciplines[五项修炼]  |  Ten Principles of Reinvention[企业型政府重塑10原则]  |  Fourteen Points of Management[质量管理14要点]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  Theory of Needs[需求理论]


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