Marketing Mix[营销组合]
(4Ps)

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对市场做出最佳反应。 E. Jerome McCarthy的Marketing Mix[营销组合]解析。

目录

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什么是营销组合? 释义

营销组合模型(也称作4P模型)是市场营销人员用于制定市场战略的一个有效工具。 营销经理在运用这一模型时,将4个市场变量(亦有5种、7种之说)按照最佳方式组合起来,从而对目标市场做出最佳反映。 营销组合的市场变量是可控的,认识这一点非常重要。 营销组合可以根据目标群体的需求变化以及市场环境的变化适时做出调整。


产品(Product

历史上,对于产品的传统认识是: 好酒不怕巷子深,好产品必有市场和顾客。 然而,在当今竞争白热化的市场上,再没有坏产品,都是好产品在相互竞争。 与此同时,很多法律也赋予了消费者无偿退回劣质品的权利。 所以现在的问题就变成了: 公司所生产的产品是不是顾客所需要的。 因此,公司必须根据顾客需求,准确定义自己的产品或服务。 功能、 质量、 外观、 包装、 品牌、 服务、 支持、 保证。
价格(Price 意欲购买公司产品或服务的顾客究竟愿意付出多大代价? 这里,我们就要用到价格战略——对此,决不能等闲视之! 就算你的产品或服务价格很低,你仍然要意识到这是一个必须认真思考的决定,这是你价格战略的一部分。 尽管价格竞争的历史几乎与人类的历史同样久远,但是,消费者至今仍然对价格折扣、特价优惠非常敏感。 价格也有无理性的一面, 例如,认为贵的就是好的。 对于大部分公司来说,把价格战作为一项长期战略决不是一个明知的做法。 定价、 折扣、 资金筹措、 融资租赁、 限量供应。
地点(Place 在准确的地点、准确的时间,并以准确度数量提供产品或服务。 当今商业环境的变化亦对“地点”产生了影响。 我们可以想一想互联网和移动电话。 方位、 物流、 渠道成员、 渠道动机、 市场覆盖、 服务水准、 互联网、 移动电话。
促销(Promotion 如何向目标顾客传递公司及公司产品的信息? 为此,市场商战中的十八般武器一样都不能少——广告、销售、销售促进、Direct Marketing[直销]、公关,等等。 当其他3P(产品、价格、地点)正在今日商战中逐渐失去其意义,促销(Promtion)却愈加受到重视。 广告、 公关、 消息、 直销、 销售、 媒介、 预算。

营销组合的作用不仅仅是迎合消费者需要,也是为了最大化组织绩效。 已经有很多人对4P营销组合进行了各种不同的扩展, 其中,最为突出的是“人员”(People Personnel)。 此外,Booms和Bitner针对服务导向型公司提出了7P营销组合。


参考书: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy: Understanding the CEO's Agenda..[中译本《大行销时代》,台湾天下杂志,2004] -

参考书: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management [中译本《战略市场管理》,中国人民大学出版社,2005] -


营销组合 小组


小组 (53名成员)


营销组合论坛  

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比较: Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合] (7Ps)  |  4S Web Marketing Mix[4S网络营销组合]  |  3C's  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]  |  Competitive Advantage framework[竞争优势架构]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]


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