Marketing Mix | The 4Ps

Knowledge Center

12manage is looking for
MBA students.


Generating the optimal response in the market. Explanation of the 4Ps of E. Jerome McCarthy.



What is the Marketing Mix? Description

The Marketing Mix model (also known as the 4 P's) can be used by marketers as a tool to assist in defining the marketing strategy. Marketing managers use this method to attempt to generate the optimal response in the target market by blending 4 (or 5, or 7) variables in an optimal way. It is important to understand that the Marketing Mix principles are controllable variables. The Marketing Mix can be adjusted on a frequent basis to meet the changing needs of the target group and the other dynamics of the marketing environment.


Historically, the thinking was: a good product will sell itself. However there are no bad products anymore in today's highly competitive markets. Plus there are many laws giving customers the right to send back products that he perceives as bad. Therefore the question on product has become: does the organization create what its intended customers want? Define the characteristics of your product or service that meets the needs of your customers. Functionality; Quality; Appearance; Packaging; Brand; Service; Support; Warranty.
Price How much are the intended customers willing to pay? Here we decide on a pricing strategy - do not let it just happen! Even if you decide not to ask (enough) money for a product or service, you must realize that this is a conscious decision and forms part of the pricing strategy. Although competing on price is as old as mankind, the consumer is often still sensitive for price discounts and special offers. Price has also an irrational side: something that is expensive must be good. Permanently competing on price is for many companies not a very sensible approach. List Price; Discounts; Financing; Leasing Options; Allowances.
Place Available at the right place, at the right time, in the right quantities? Some of the recent major changes in business have come about by changing Place. Think of the Internet and mobile telephones. Locations; Logistics; Channel members; Channel Motivation; Market Coverage; Service Levels; Internet; Mobile.
Promotion (How) are the chosen target groups informed or educated about the organization and its products? This includes all the weapons in the marketing armory - advertising, selling, sales promotions, Direct Marketing, Public Relations, etc. While the other three P's have lost much of their meanings in today's markets, Promotion has become the most important P to focus on. Advertising; Public Relations; Message; Direct Sales; Sales; Media; Budget.

The function of the Marketing Mix is to help develop a package (mix) that will not only satisfy the needs of the customers within the target markets, but simultaneously to maximize the performance of the organization. There have been many attempts to increase the number of P's from 4 to 5P's in the Marketing Mix model. The most frequently mentioned one being People or Personnel. Booms and Bitner have suggested a 7-Ps approach for services-oriented companies.

Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy: Understanding the CEO's Agenda.. -

Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -

Marketing Mix | The 4Ps Special Interest Group

Special Interest Group (1481 members)

Marketing Mix | The 4Ps Forum  

Recent topics

  Promotion Mix | Marketing Communications Mix
The term Promotion Mix (PM), also called Marketing Communications Mix, must not be confused with the  
  Customers' Value Bundle
I think I saw the term(s) in P. Kotler's book. the word "Product" makes your thinking centered around the physical product only. So, i prefer using ...
  Customer in Center of 4Ps
Why is the customer placed in the center of the 4ps?...
  The five V's for Marketing Mix
Value, Viability, Volume, Variety, Virtue,...
  Add a Living Element to the Marketing Mix
Ask any MBA student on the fundamentals of marketing and he will tell you about the 4Ps, Product, Price, Place and Promotion. As you know it was
  What is the 5P's Marketing Mix?
I want to know the following about the 5P model:
Where exactly does it fit in marketing and marketing research? Thank you....
  New Marketing Mix Concept: SAVE
We are familiar with the concept of 4P of marketing, Product, Place, Price and Promotion.
We are finding that these are no longer the same and it...
  Necessary Skills of Marketers
According to Kotler (1972), effective marketing consists of analysing, planning, organising and controlling marketing efforts:
  • ANALYSIS: ma...
  The Role of Culture in Marketing Mix : C4P's ?
All I can say about Marketing Mix is that maybe also the Culture is also important. Maybe we could have called the 4P's : C4P's; believe me bef...
  4Ps are Not Optional, but Key Issues that MUST be addressed
The concept of a Marketing Mix implies that these are not options. In practice the 4Ps represent the key questions or issues that need to always be a...
  How the Marketing Mix Influences Operations
Can anyone explain the relevance of the marketing plan to operations management in an organization with an example?...
  Marketing Mix Modelling
Hi all... What statistical techniques are used in marketing mix modelling?
How are they used? Please share your best practices and worst nightmar...
  What are the Implications for 4Ps if the Exchange Rate Changes
What are the implications for international marketing in case the exchange rates change?
How do changes in exchange rate affect Product?

Best Practices - Marketing Mix | The 4Ps
  Before using the Marketing Mix
Most marketers emphasize the marketing mix. In my opinion, The most important part of the marketing plan is knowing what are the customer requirem...
  4P Implementation Steps. Order of Implementing the 4Ps?
I would like to know what steps one takes in a 4P implementation. Is there any particular order? Please inform me....
  Marketing Mix in Recession
In view of the recession, how have the marketers adjusted their marketing strategies in terms of the 4P's in marketing in order to cater for the needs...
  4th P includes Image and Reputation
Note that image and/or reputation are part of the P of Promotion....
  Impact of Marketing Plan on Employees?
Does a marketing plan have any impact upon the employees? Which?...
  Marketing Mix P's for Online Companies
I have a question, how will you prioritize the p's for an online company like for
  Marketing of Services and Non Purely Physical Products?
Most of today's products are not purely physical. We are also offering intangible values like brand feelings and after-sale services in additional to...
  Quotes on Marketing Mix
Do you know some deep, famous or funny Quotes on the Marketing Mix? Quotations? Proverbs? Please share them as a reaction to this posting and m...
  Examples of Marketing Mix
I would like to see an example of the 4 ps of marketing with an example of air condition?...
  Marketing = Marketing Mix + Customers = 4P's + C
My teacher said that Marketing is the 4Ps plus a C (Customers). And he didn't explain it, so I really don't understand it too much. Can you hel...
  Marketing Mix Alternatives
Are there any credible alternatives to the marketing mix?...
  Marketing Mix for Business Planning
Define the service, develop a benefit list, focus on what makes the business different from the competition, develop the positioning of the service pr...
  What About This Period
In the current situation of recession I think even the top marketing methods are not working. These days the customer looks at the mandatory requireme...
  Add Image to Marketing Mix: 4P + I
The four P`s needs an additional I for Image. This is especially relevant for high-involvement products....
  4S Web Marketing Mix
Constantinides constructed a 4S Internet Marketing Mix. The 4S's stand for Site,...
  Why is Using the Marketing Mix Important?
What is the significance of an effective marketing mix?...
  4Ps renamed: the SIVA model
An interesting customer-focused variant of the 4Ps was suggested by Chekitan S. Dev and Don E. Schultz in Marketing Management v.14 n.1 January/Februa...

Expert Tips - Marketing Mix | The 4Ps

A Marketing Mix that Recognizes the Power of the Customer


How to Determine the Right PRICING?


The Most Complete Marketing Mix


The Renewed 4P Marketing Mix


Understanding your Customer's Needs


Are the variables really controllable?


Marketing Mix from the Customer Perspective


The Role of the 4P's in an Online Enviroment


The Goals of Marketing


Going Global: Adaptation of Marketing Mix Components


Don't Forget Internal Marketing


Resources - Marketing Mix | The 4Ps

How Integrated Marketing Works


External Environment In-depth: Sub-types and How to Manage Them


Overview of Pricing and Pricing Strategies


Product Packaging


The Importance of Noncustomers


The 2 Worlds of Marketing and Sales


What is Integrated Marketing?


Funny Intro to Marketing Concepts in 2 Minutes


Introduction and Summary of the 4P's


News about Marketing Mix Theory


News about Marketing Mix


Videos about Marketing Mix Theory


Videos about Marketing Mix


Presentations about Marketing Mix Theory


Presentations about Marketing Mix


Books about Marketing Mix Theory


Books about Marketing Mix


More about Marketing Mix Theory


More about Marketing Mix


Compare with the 4-Ps: Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps)  |  4S Web Marketing Mix  |  3C's  |  Product/Market Grid  |  SERVQUAL  |  Competitive Advantage framework  |  BCG Matrix  |  Bass Diffusion Model  |  Positioning  |  Co-Creation  |  Disruptive Innovation  |  Relationship Marketing

Return to Management Hub: Communication & Skills  |  Marketing  | Strategy  |  Supply Chain & Quality

More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here? Sign up for free


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2019 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.0 - Last updated: 19-1-2019. All names ™ of their owners.