Force Field Analysis
(Lewin)

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Summary

Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin was an American social psychologist. He has contributed to science group dynamics and action research, and he is regarded one of the founders of modern psychology. But Lewin is perhaps best-known for developing Force Field Analysis and Force Field Diagrams.


Force Field Analysis Diagram LewinLewin's view on organizations

According to Kurt Lewin, an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces. Those seeking to promote change: the driving forces. And those attempting to maintain the status quo: the restraining forces. Lewin viewed organizations as systems in which the present situation was not a static pattern. But a dynamic balance ("Equilibrium") of forces working in opposite directions. In order for any change to occur, the driving forces must exceed the restraining forces, thus shifting the equilibrium. Compare: Catastrophe Theory.


The Force Field Diagram

The Force Field Diagram is a model built on this idea that forces are both driving and restraining change. These forces include: persons, habits, customs, and attitudes. A Force Field Diagram can be used at any level: personal, project, organizational, network, to visualize the forces that may work in favor and against change initiatives. The diagram helps its user to picture the "war" between forces around a given issue. Usually, a planned change issue is described at the top. Below this, there are two columns. The driving forces are listed in the left column, and the restraining forces in the right-hand column. Arrows are drawn towards the middle. Longer arrows indicate stronger forces. The idea is to understand, and to make explicit, all the forces acting on a given issue.


Use of the Force Field Analysis method

  • Investigate the balance of power involved in an issue.
  • Identify the most important players (stakeholders) and target groups for a campaign on the issue.
  • Identify opponents and allies.
  • Identify how you can influence each target group

Steps in a Force Field Analysis? Process

  1. Describe the current situation.
  2. Describe the desired situation.
  3. Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken.
  4. List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation.
  5. List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation.
  6. Discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid? Can they be changed? Which are the critical ones?
  7. Allocate a score to each of the forces using a numerical scale e.g. 1 is extremely weak and 10 is extremely strong.
  8. Chart the forces. List the driving forces on the left. And list the restraining forces on the right.
  9. Determine whether change is viable and progress can occur.
  10. Discuss how the change can be affected by decreasing the strength of the restraining forces or by increasing the strength of driving forces.
  11. Remember that increasing the driving forces or decreasing the restraining forces may increase or decrease other forces or even create new ones.

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Organizational Change: How to Increase Driving Forces and How to Decrease Restraining Forces?
I could do with some practical advice increasing driving / decreasing restraining forces. How can one increase driving (...)
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17 reactions
Implementation of Change in an Organisation
This is a powerful tool of directing the change management process but it is not good enough for implementing the change (...)
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1 reactions
Force Field Analysis Helps to Consider Barriers Before Embarking Change
Change is hard. Force field analysis helps to summarize the barriers. Thus, all phases must be understood before embarki (...)
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1 reactions
Identifying Change Drivers
This is my first communication on this amazing site. Could anyone suggest a suitable framework/theory to identify the d (...)
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0 reactions
Dynamism is the Interface to Change Issues
Change is must for all entities. It is part of every movement, nothing stays standing on the same start point. It is a l (...)
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0 reactions
Post-Merger Force Fields
In Post-Merger relationships restraining forces will include creation of 5th columnists within the organisation, and ins (...)
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0 reactions
Using Force Field Analysis for Gender Analysis
Force field analysis is an appropriate tool for gender analysis to identify the deprived class womens short comings, and (...)
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0 reactions
🔥 NEW Measuring Driving and Restraining Forces - Metrics
I'm swearing off companies in crisis. I had an engagement blow up recently and it was painful. What METRICS do you use (...)
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0 reactions
The Human Factor in Force Field Analysis
The FFA is a great tool in analysing change. In a practical sense, the human factor is the most controversial force in e (...)
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0 reactions
Three Strategic Frameworks (Mulcaster)
Mulcaster (2008) developed 3 strategic frameworks that can be useful both in decision making and in strategy. All three (...)
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Force Field Diagram Assumptions
I think that the model of Lewin is reducing the dimensions of changes to conflict and opposition between two classes. (...)
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1 reactions
MSCS Concept in Force Field Analysis
In the force field analysis I use the MSCS (Magnitude, Symptoms, Causes and Solutions) concept for both the driving forc (...)
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0 reactions
Be a Change Catalyst
If one has to make a choice that sees the benefits of the greatest majority, then try to be a catalyst in any organizati (...)
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0 reactions
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The top-rated topics about Force Field Analysis. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


Quotes by Kurt Lewin
If you want to truly understand something, try to change it. (...)
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4 reactions

Unfreeze, Changing and Refreeze
I just wonder besides of "Force Field Analysis" , Kurt Lewin Change Model should also involved with "unfreeze, change, r (...)
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3 reactions

Decreasing Restraining Forces is easier
I have used Force Field Analysis in the past in the Health, Safety and Environment field. Sometimes I find less effort i (...)
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1 reactions

Where does Power Come From?
What is the origin of power forces? (...)
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3 reactions

Origin of Force Field Analysis
I seem to remember from my early days in OD that Lewin based his model on engineering principles of force analysis taugh (...)
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4 reactions

Expert Tips

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Advanced insights about Force Field Analysis. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

Change Management, Organizational Change
According to Ken Blanchard in the article “Mastering the Art of Change” (Training Journal, January 2010), it is importan (...)

Leadership Strategies for Change

Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through (...)

The Next Steps when FFA is Done...

Actions to Take after a Force Field Analysis, FFA Implementation
After the analysis is done and the existing forces have been identified and rated, action can be planned and undertaken (...)

The Force of Employees in Change Inititiaves

Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context of change initiatives. The sour (...)

Implementing Force Field Analysis in the Strategy Process

Practical Guidelines, Best Practices
In his article "Force Field Analysis: A New Way to Evaluate Your Strategy", J. Thomas established seven guidelines usefu (...)

Industry’s Driving Forces

Organizational Change
Many events can affect an industry powerfully enough to qualify as driving forces. Some are unique and specific to a par (...)

Describing and Analyzing Driving Forces

FFA Implementation
When analyzing potential trends or driving forces, for them to be relevant they must have at least one effect on the ter (...)

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change

Leading Change
In their book "Transforming Public and Nonprofit Organization – Stewardship for Leading Change", James Edwin Kee and Kat (...)

Unfreezing, Moving, Freezing

Change Management
In the early 20th century, psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three phases/stages of change that are still the basis of (...)

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

Preparing Strategic Change
If we need to change strategically, we need to think about why, what, when, who and how: - Why do we want to change? - (...)

Typical Driving Forces

Examples
Typical driving forces include: felt need for change, regulation change, decreasing results, organizational crisis, bonu (...)

Typical Restraining Forces

Examples
Typical restraining forces include: inertia, apathy, technology, IT, rigidity, fear for the new, budgets, hostility, dis (...)
Information Sources

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Various sources of information regarding Force Field Analysis. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


Force Field Analysis

Force Field Analysis
Good explanation about FFA by Vivek Birla. The author describes the concept and the main view of the inventor Lewin. Aft (...)

Framing in the Context of Conflicts

Framing, Negotiation, Collective Bargaining, Stakeholder Analysis, Force Field Analysis, Conflict Management
Framing and conflicts This presentation elaborates on the extent to which framing relates to conflicts (and its resolut (...)

Dealing with Strong Resisters

Dealing with Resistance to Change, Change Management, Training, Workshop
Dr. John Kotter gives remarkable advice on dealing with "No, No, People" (strong resisters in change initiatives). Acco (...)

Getting Started with Force Field Analysis

Force Field Analysis, Change Management, Problem Solving
To make a decision you can make a list of the PROs and the CONs. But since the issues aren't equally important, it will (...)

Applying Creative Thinking to Complex Business Problem Solving

Creative Thinking, Problem Solving, Complex Problem Solving Techniques
This presentation focuses on creative thinking as a useful tool for dealing with complex business issues. It includes th (...)

Managing Organizational Change

Change Management, Leading Change, Organizational Development
This is a presentation about the ways to manage change. The presentation includes the following sections: 1. Introducti (...)

22 Best Practices in Change Management

Change Management, Organizational Change
Presentation starts with short introduction of managing organizational change and then outlines 22 best practices in cha (...)

Force Field Analysis Diagram

Force Field Analysis
Download and edit the 12manage PowerPoint model for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in int (...)
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