Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]

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Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型] | Kraljic Matrix[卡拉杰克矩阵] 什么是卡拉杰克模型? 释义

卡拉杰克矩阵(Kraljic Matrix)最早出现于彼得·卡拉杰克(Peter Kraljic)的《采购必须纳入供应管理》(Purchasing must become Supply Management)一文,这篇文章发表在1983年9-10月号的《哈佛商业评论》上。 该矩阵被用作为公司采购组合的分析工具。


卡拉杰克矩阵以采购所牵涉的两个重要方面作为其维度(参见附图):

  • 收益影响(Profit Impact: 采购项目在产品增值、原材料总成本比及产品收益等方面的战略影响。
  • 供应风险(Supply Risk: 供应市场的复杂性、技术创新及原材料更替的步伐、市场进入的门槛、物流成本及复杂性、以及供给垄断或短缺等市场条件。

据此,卡拉杰克模型将采购项目分为四个类别:

  1. 杠杆项目(Leverage Items
    • 释义: 所谓杠杆项目就是可选供应商较多、能够为买家带来较高利润的采购项目。 替换供应商较为容易。 具有标准化的产品质量标准。
    • 买卖双方地位: 买方主动,相互依赖性一般。
    • 采购战略推荐: 采购招标,供应商选择,目标订价,与首选供应商达成一揽子协议, 最后按正常供应程序执行、处理分订单(Call-Off Order)。
  2. 战略项目(Strategic Items
    • 释义: 所谓战略项目就是对买方的产品或生产流程至关重要的采购项目。 这些项目往往由于供给稀缺或运输困难而具有较高的供应风险。
    • 买卖双方地位: 力量均衡,相互依赖性较高。
    • 采购战略推荐: 战略联盟,紧密联系,供应商尽早介入,共同创造,并充分考虑垂直整合,关注长期价值。
  3. 非关键性项目(Non-Critical Items
    • 释义: 所谓非重要性项目就是指供给丰富、采购容易、财务影响较低的采购项目。 具有标准化的产品质量标准。
    • 买卖双方地位: 力量均衡,相互依赖性较低。
    • 采购战略推荐: 通过提高产品标准和改进生产流程,减少对此类项目的采购投入。
  4. 瓶颈项目(Bottleneck Items
    • 释义: 所谓瓶颈项目就是指只能由某一特定供应商提供、运输不便、财务影响较低的采购项目。
    • 买卖双方地位: 卖方主动,相互依赖性一般。
    • 采购战略推荐: 数量保险合同,供应商管理库存,确保额外库存,寻找潜在供应商。

卡拉杰克模型的起源。 历史

作为资产投资管理工具,投资组合模型这一概念最初是由哈里·马科维茨(Harry M. Markowitz)于1950年代提出。 1983年,卡拉杰克率先将此组合概念引入采购领域。


卡拉杰克模型的运用。 应用

  • 采购组合分析。
  • 促使采购部门关注最为重要的采购项目。
  • 外包非关键性项目及杠杆项目。

卡拉杰克模型的步骤。 流程

  1. 采购组合分析准备。
  2. 确定收益影响及供应风险的具体原则。
  3. 决定采购组合分析的层次(分析深入至单体项目,还是以组为单位进行? 分析是以部门、事业单元还是公司整体为单位进行?)
  4. 将掌握的数据信息输入卡拉杰克矩阵。
  5. 对结果进行分析讨论。

  6. 为矩阵各象限制定采购战略和执行措施。

  7. 战略执行和监督。


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