Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型]



采购组合分析。 卡拉杰克模型解析。 (1983)


  1. 摘要
  2. 论坛
  3. 最佳实践
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 相关资料
  6. 打印

Kraljic Model[卡拉杰克模型] | Kraljic Matrix[卡拉杰克矩阵] 什么是卡拉杰克模型? 释义

卡拉杰克矩阵(Kraljic Matrix)最早出现于彼得·卡拉杰克(Peter Kraljic)的《采购必须纳入供应管理》(Purchasing must become Supply Management)一文,这篇文章发表在1983年9-10月号的《哈佛商业评论》上。 该矩阵被用作为公司采购组合的分析工具。


  • 收益影响(Profit Impact: 采购项目在产品增值、原材料总成本比及产品收益等方面的战略影响。
  • 供应风险(Supply Risk: 供应市场的复杂性、技术创新及原材料更替的步伐、市场进入的门槛、物流成本及复杂性、以及供给垄断或短缺等市场条件。


  1. 杠杆项目(Leverage Items
    • 释义: 所谓杠杆项目就是可选供应商较多、能够为买家带来较高利润的采购项目。 替换供应商较为容易。 具有标准化的产品质量标准。
    • 买卖双方地位: 买方主动,相互依赖性一般。
    • 采购战略推荐: 采购招标,供应商选择,目标订价,与首选供应商达成一揽子协议, 最后按正常供应程序执行、处理分订单(Call-Off Order)。
  2. 战略项目(Strategic Items
    • 释义: 所谓战略项目就是对买方的产品或生产流程至关重要的采购项目。 这些项目往往由于供给稀缺或运输困难而具有较高的供应风险。
    • 买卖双方地位: 力量均衡,相互依赖性较高。
    • 采购战略推荐: 战略联盟,紧密联系,供应商尽早介入,共同创造,并充分考虑垂直整合,关注长期价值。
  3. 非关键性项目(Non-Critical Items
    • 释义: 所谓非重要性项目就是指供给丰富、采购容易、财务影响较低的采购项目。 具有标准化的产品质量标准。
    • 买卖双方地位: 力量均衡,相互依赖性较低。
    • 采购战略推荐: 通过提高产品标准和改进生产流程,减少对此类项目的采购投入。
  4. 瓶颈项目(Bottleneck Items
    • 释义: 所谓瓶颈项目就是指只能由某一特定供应商提供、运输不便、财务影响较低的采购项目。
    • 买卖双方地位: 卖方主动,相互依赖性一般。
    • 采购战略推荐: 数量保险合同,供应商管理库存,确保额外库存,寻找潜在供应商。

卡拉杰克模型的起源。 历史

作为资产投资管理工具,投资组合模型这一概念最初是由哈里·马科维茨(Harry M. Markowitz)于1950年代提出。 1983年,卡拉杰克率先将此组合概念引入采购领域。

卡拉杰克模型的运用。 应用

  • 采购组合分析。
  • 促使采购部门关注最为重要的采购项目。
  • 外包非关键性项目及杠杆项目。

卡拉杰克模型的步骤。 流程

  1. 采购组合分析准备。
  2. 确定收益影响及供应风险的具体原则。
  3. 决定采购组合分析的层次(分析深入至单体项目,还是以组为单位进行? 分析是以部门、事业单元还是公司整体为单位进行?)
  4. 将掌握的数据信息输入卡拉杰克矩阵。
  5. 对结果进行分析讨论。

  6. 为矩阵各象限制定采购战略和执行措施。

  7. 战略执行和监督。

  Criteria for Supplier Categorization
I need criteria to categorize my suppliers so as to give the most priority to the most strategic suppliers. In what way can I categorize these vendors?...
  Kraljic Template & Manual
I am trying to setup and understand the Kraljic diagram.
Anyone who can support me on trying to do this with an Excel format/example?
The diagram will be used for understanding where the risks are in the purchase of ad hoc projects, because...
  Collaboration Styles of Purchasing Managers
What collaboration or engagement style(s) you see as most efficien...
  Dominant Purchasing Factor: Quality or Price?
In your field of expertise what is the most important factor; quality or price?
Would you be prepared to reduce the quality of the products you purchase if that would have an impact on the price? How do you control the magnitude of that quality ...
  From Company Strategy to Purchasing Strategy to Commodity Strategy
The purchasing department is an important department in the company. As such it is a logical question to the Purchasing manager/director to define his purchasing strategy and communicate this to the board. What information is needed to build such a s...
  Dealing with a Unique Supplier While You Don't Have Negotiation Power
Sometimes you have to close a negotiation process but you dont have any negotiation power because your volume for purchasing is low, while your supplier is unique for the project or service you need.
How could you get the best conditions or min...
  The TIME Factor in Procurement and Logistics Negotiations
In what ways may TIME affect one's negotiation position with regard to price, quality, negotiation style and future relationship with the supplier?...
  Best Value Performance Information Procurement System (Best Value PIPS)
In this article I try to portray my experiences with a revolutionary business model that has been used most frequently in the procurement of construction and services.
It is a business model and procurement system that has had amazing implicatio...
  Factors to Analyse a Purchasing Portfolio Beyond those in the Kraljic Model
Dear all, as written in the summary of the Kraljic Model, if we need to analyze our purchasing portfolio, we can use this model to help us consider 2 interrelated factors which are crucial in drafting a purcha...
  Rate Contract versus System Contract
What is the difference between a rate contract and a system contract and which is more effective in terms of cost?...
  Software Procurement & Automotive SPICE
From the perspective of an OEM buyer, managing the commodity group, electronics and software, what experience do my fellow 12manage colleagues have with using automotive SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination) as a means to ...
  Strategic Process for Global Sourcing
I need to understand the process steps which are to be considered to prepare a global procurement strategy... Who can share some advise?...
  What is Purchase Marketing?
I'm trying to find out what purchase marketing is? Thanks for your ideas and hints....
  Controlling the Supply Chain in an Unstable Environment
What basic parameters should be controlled in an unstable economic (and political) environment. Should I go project to project? Or what else?
Presently I am managing the supply chain in power generation sector. We have supply and maintenance co...
  Examples of the 4 Product Categories of Kraljic
I don't manage to draw up a clear difference between the 4 categories of product. I am operating in the milling industry. We buy raw materials, packing materials, spares and stationery. Which is which? Thanks for your input......
  Types of E-Procurement Tools
I am looking for categories / types of E-procurement tools. Can you give me some ideas?...
  Sustainability Criteria in Purchasing Strategy
How to integrate environmental criteria into purchasing decision models, especially Kraljic's one ?...
  E-Procurement Strategy per Category
What are typical E-Procurement strategies a Chief Procurement Officer can design for each given purchasing category? Any help will be appreciated. T...
  Beyond the Steady State
What impact will the emergence of a service free public sector, that is failure immune or failure compensated, have on emergence in bottleneck markets, and what are the sustainability issues?...

卡拉杰克模型 小组


卡拉杰克模型 培训|活动


最佳实践 - 卡拉杰克模型 高级帐户
  Public Procurement Process
Can somebody give more information about public procurement processes? Thanks....

Expert Tips (ENG) - Kraljic Model 高级帐户

Supplier Selection Models

Supplier selection has traditionally been described as being based on the five Rs:
1. Right price
2. Right quality
3. Right quan...
Usage (application)Supplier Selection, Supplier Evaluation, Best Practices

Three Reasons for Dysfunctional Buyer - Supplier Relationships

Roloff, Alnder and Nayier (2015) did research on the conditions for (un)successful buyer-supplier relationships and found that these relation...
Usage (application)Supply Chain Management, Purchasing, Alliances, Partnerships, Supply Chain Relations

Price Relates to Quality not the Other Way Around

Everybody is looking for the best Price/Quality ratio. But although most companies submitting an RFP know exactly what their budget is, they have diff...
Usage (application)Best Practice

Obtaining a High Supplier Quality

W. Edward Deming, a well-known management consultant, strongly recommended Sole (Single) Sourcing as the only management way to obtain high supplier q...
Usage (application)Best Practice to Consider

相关资料 - 卡拉杰克模型 高级帐户

















比较: Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Outsourcing[外包]  |  3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]  |  Vendor Managed Inventory[供应商管理库存]  |  Value Chain[价值链]  |  Vertical Integration[垂直整合]  |   Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  Five Forces[五力模式]模型

返回到分类主页: 供应链与质量管理


Special Interest Group Leader


关于12manage | 广告服务 | 链接我们 | 隐私 | 服务条款
版权所有 2017 12manage经理人进阶捷径。V14.1 - 最后更新:24-7-2017。各管理方法名称(tm)为其原创者所拥有。