Six Change Approaches[六变革法]
(Kotter)

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总结

Kotter和Schlesinger的Six Change Approaches[六变革法]模型旨在预防、减少和弱化组织内部的变革阻力。


变革阻力产生的原因

根据Kotter和Schlesinger的研究(1979),导致某些人阻碍变革的原因主要有四种:

  1. 利己主义。 某些人只考虑变革对自己有没有影响,对自己的利益会产生怎样的影响,而不去考虑变革对组织的成功会产生什么影响。

  2. 纯属误解。 主要是由于信息不全造成的沟通问题 。

  3. 承受力差。 某些人过分依赖有安全感和稳定感的工作环境。

  4. 认识不同。 有些人可能不赞同公司提出来的变革原因,或者不赞同公司所强调的变革利弊。

应对变革阻力的六个途径

Kotter和Schlesinger给出了以下六条途径,用以应对变革阻力:

  1. 教育和沟通。 适用于信息缺乏、信息不准确、或者对变革缺少分析讨论的时候。 其中最为有效的一个方法是, 在实施变革之前,对员工进行宣传教育。 变革前的沟通教育,有助于帮助员工理解变革的逻辑性和合理性,认识到变革之举势在必行, 从而减少关于变革的各种不实谣言。

  2. 参与和融合。 适用于发动变革的领导团队缺乏设计变革的必要信息,以及员工阻力相当大的时候。 当员工被融入到变革活动,他们更可能去顺应变革,参与变革,而不是阻挡变革。 这一方法最好用于消除来自于对变革持默许态度的员工的阻力。

  3. 引导和支持。 适用于变革过程中的各项调整引发员工阻挠的时候。 在这一困难时期,管理人员如果采取支持员工的态度,能够有效防止潜在阻力。 在变革转型过程中,管理人员应该帮助员工梳理他们的担忧和焦虑。 员工之所以害怕变革、阻挠变革,原因主要在于: 他们认为变革会给他们个人带来负面影响。 这一手段的典型方法是,提供正常工作外的专门训练和咨询服务。

  4. 谈判和协商。 适用于部分员工或部门利益受损,以及阻挠力量较大的时候。 管理人员可以通过提供各种形式的激励,使员工放弃抵抗。 比如,可以给员工一定的权利,否决那些对他们来说有危险的变革成分, 或者给予员工特殊政策,允许那些反对变革的人通过买断工龄、或提前退休等形式离开公司, 以避免遭遇变革风险。 这一方法用在那些阻力较大的人员身上比较适合。

  5. 操作和Cooptation。 适用于以上策略发挥不了作用或成本太高的时候。 Kotter和Schlesinger建议, 选举阻挠力量的代表进入变革领导团队,是一个较为有效的操控阻挠人员的方法。 Cooptation介入带领人进入变动管理制定计划组为出现而不是他们实质的贡献。 具体做法就是从那些阻挠变革的员工中选举部分代表作为变革团队的领导成员, 给予他们象征性的决策角色,同时却无碍变革大计。 需要注意的是, 如果这些阻力派领导人物产生被耍弄的感觉,他们有可能会产生更大的抵触情绪,阻挠变革。

  6. 正面施压。 适用于变革刻不容缓的时候, 且最好作为其他办法均无效果时的最后一招。 管理人员可以明确或含蓄向员工施压,告诉他们必须接受变革,否则会导致严重后果,如: 失业、下岗、流动、或失去升迁机会,等等。


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比较: Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Organic Organization[有机式组织]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  People-CMM[人力资源能力成熟度模式]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work[关系工作的四个类型]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Office of Strategy Management[战略管理办公室]  |  Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change[组织绩效与变革因果关系模型]


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