Six Change Approaches
(Kotter)

Knowledge Center




Summary, forum, best practices, expert tips and information sources.

143 items • 830.056 visits


Summary

The Six (6) Change Approaches of Kotter and Schlesinger is a model to prevent, decrease or minimize resistance to change in organizations.


Reasons for resistance to change

According to Kotter and Schlesinger (1979), there are four reasons that certain people are resisting change:

  1. Parochial self-interest. Some people are more concerned with the implication of the change for themselves and how it may affect their own interests, rather than considering the effects for the success of the business.

  2. Misunderstanding. Communication problems; inadequate information.

  3. Low tolerance of change. Certain people are very keen on feeling secure and having stability in their work.

  4. Different assessments of the situation. Some employees may disagree with the reasons for the change and with the advantages and disadvantages of the change process.

Six approaches to deal with resistance to change

Kotter and Schlesinger have set out the following six (6) change approaches to deal with change resistance:

  1. Education and Communication. Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis. One of the best ways to overcome resistance to change is: to inform and educate people about the change effort beforehand. Preceding communication and education helps employees see the logic in the change effort. This reduces unfounded and incorrect rumors concerning the effects of change in the organization.

  2. Participation and Involvement. Where the initiators do not have all the necessary information to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist. When employees are involved in the change effort they are more likely to want change rather than resist it. This approach is likely to decrease resistance of those, who merely acquiesce in the change.

  3. Facilitation and Support. Where people are resisting change, because of adjustment problems. By being supportive of employees during difficult times, managers can prevent potential resistance. Managerial support helps employees to deal with their fear and anxiety during a transition period. The basis of resistance to change is likely to be: the perception that there will be some form of detrimental effect occasioned by the change in the organization. Typical for this approach are special training and counseling, outside normal office premises.

  4. Negotiation and Agreement. Where someone or some group may lose out because of a change, and where that individual or group has considerable power to resist. Managers can combat resistance by offering incentives to employees not to resist change. This can be done by allowing people who are resisting the change to veto certain elements of change that are threatening. Or the people who are resisting the change can be offered incentives to leave the company through early buyouts or through retirements. In order to avoid the experience of the change effort. This approach will be appropriate where those resisting change are in a position of power.

  5. Manipulation and Co-optation. Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive. Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that an effective manipulation technique is: to co-opt with people who are resisting the change. Co-optation involves bringing a person into a change management planning group for the sake of appearances rather than their substantive contribution. This often involves selecting leaders of the people who are resisting the change, to participate in the change effort. These leaders can be given a symbolic role in decision-making, without threatening the change effort. Note this: if these leaders feel that they are being tricked, they are likely to push resistance even further than if they were never included in the change effort leadership.

  6. Explicit and Implicit Coercion. Where speed is essential. And to be used only as last resort. Managers can explicitly or implicitly force employees into accepting change, by making clear that resistance to change can lead to: jobs losses, dismissals, employee transfers, or not promoting employees.


Special Interest Group

Six Change Approaches Special Interest Group.



Special Interest Group (894 members)

Forum

Forum discussions about the Six Change Approaches. Below you can ask a question about this topic, share your experiences, report a new development, or explain something.


Start a new topic about Six Change Approaches

 

Why Communication is Crucial in Change Processes
Communication is a very critical process in today's challenging times. The success factor is proper communication on:
- Why the change is inevitable, and
- Why the support and involvement o...
18
 
3 comments
Everyone is Part in Change
There is a saying that says "you either get better or you get worse"; you don't stay the same.
So anyway you slice it, you are part of change, it's either good or bad.
This goes for every pa...
14
 
2 comments
Resistance to Change Types
Resistance to change can be considered along various dimensions:
- Individual versus Collective resistance
- Passive versus Active resistance
- Direct versus Indirect resistance
-...
11
 
First Values and Culture
I believe that the change must be made by participation and involvement but first we have to work on organization values and culture because we have to prepare the field, any other way can´t be follow...
11
 
Change Ability is a Core Competence
The capacity or ability of an organization to change quickly and successfully (skillfully combining above and other change approaches) can be viewed as a core competence, which can be continually upgr...
10
 
9 comments
Change Leadership AND Change Management: 2 Parts of the Same Whole
Thank you for the video of this week explaining the differences between Change Leadership (CL) and Change Management (CM) in Kotter's view.
I humbly suggest that they are mutually inclusive:
...
9
 
23 comments
Expansion (Change) in Business Focus
Our company is undergoing a major change. We are expanding in a very fast pace and it is a great change! Due to expansion, we have recruited a lot of talented and good people who have the drive, passi...
7
 
2 comments
Participatory Approaches Towards Taking on Change
I think you will find in most cases larger organisations will use a programmatic approach, i.e. a top down approach towards implementing and communicating change. Here I believe issues arise as it doe...
7
 
2 comments
Using Change Approaches for Post-election Violence
Extremely useful information. I used it to advice people on post election violence and on how they can manage change....
6
 
1 comments
Displacement Through Change
Forging change of a political government and of leadership in a country may mean displacement of political leaders in power. In such case, it appears that their resistance to change is influenced by p...
4
 
Approach #7 to Deal with Resistance
I would add 7th approach. This is facilitation to inner, spiritual development of all those involved into change. Wise people do not resist change, but are open to it. Inner spiritual path, growth to ...
3
 
Mention Change in Introduction Training
It is advisable to emphazise the subject of change (management) during the introduction training of new employees....
3
 
3 comments
Kotter Change Model and ADKAR Model
I am comparing Kotter's model with ADKAR from Prosci, they closely resemble each other though Kotter seems to be more forceful in implementing change....
2
 
2 comments
🔥 NEW Organizational Ideology as a Change Approach
I believe another (7th) approach to change could be: 'Organizational Ideology'.
Ideological change following the situation is a competency and shows the flexibility of management.
One way to...
2
 
2 comments
Resistance to Change not Just Self-Interest
The first factor in resistance, self interest, may be something less "toxic" and that is complacency (Editor: ~self-satisfaction). At first an individual isn't resistant to change, per se, but it sim...
2
 
4 comments
The Origin of Resistance to Change
It is my belief that resistance to change stems from fear and lack of information. When free-flow of information forms part of the policy of an organization, every worker is able to analyze available...
2
 
4 comments
Change Dynamics of People Being in the Organization for a Long Time
It seems to me as if the longer people stay in an organisation, the more resistance they develop to any change initiative - despite their advantages. Is this impression of mine correct?...
2
 
3 comments
First the Rational and Hard Factors
Organizational change management can be effectively carried if the rational and hard factors are addressed first before applying the models which are supposed to address the emotional and soft factors...
1
 
1 comments
Why *assume* they are wrong and we are right?
Too many of these explanations for why "they" are fearful, uninformed, unaware are simply an excuse for failing to consider all the implications of the change. If you do that - and you still consider ...
1
 
1 comments

Best Practices

The best, top-rated topics about the Six Change Approaches. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


Dealing with Resistance to Change
- MAINTAINING STATUS QUO means living and working within the known and the comfort zone.
- CHANGE means going beyond frontiers of the known, learning to work with new challenges.
- RESISTANC...
15
 
3 comments

5th Reason for Resistance to Change: Over Protectiveness of the Status Quo
I am managing a change program for a voluntary organisation for people with learning disabilities whose over caring attitude has developed over decades. The necessary change needs to happen for the or...
14
 
6 comments

Manage Change Like a Salesman
In order to make effective change, the manager has to believe in the change. It is top down. You hear words like "buy in" which means a manager has to talk up the change and make it practical and tang...
12
 
3 comments

Trust, change and management
Trust creates trust, mistrust creates mistrust! Managers should create trust in order to be trusted by others. A barrier towards mistrust is a lack of knowledge and the understanding of concepts which...
6
 
4 comments

Combining Kotter's Change Approaches?
It is a prerequisite to the selection of the appropriate change approach to understand the change management iceberg model of Kruger and the above attitudes and behavior of people towards the change p...
6
 
9 comments

Expert Tips

Advanced insights about the Six Change Approaches. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives
Organizational change is often difficult to achieve because it disturbs the hierarchical structures and the way to accom...

Leadership Strategies for Change

Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through ...

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change
In their article "Making Change Happen, and Making It Stick" (published in the online edition of strategy+business, Dece...

Categories of Change Tools and Approaches

Change Management, Organizational Change
According to Christensen et al. in HBR Oct 2007, 4 types of "tools" can be distinguished, depending on the extent that p...

What Change Agents Should I Use?

Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management
When choosing between internal or external change agents, organizations should consider following advantages and disadva...

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation
Speculand (2009) suggests six mind shifts that people should consider when they're implementing new strategies in organi...

Types of Change. Classification

Change Management, Organizational Change, Expected/Unexpected Change, Incremental/Radical Change
Organizational change varies along at least to dimensions (expected-unexpected and incremental-radical) and can be manag...

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

Communicating Strategic Change
In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized....

Approaches to Planned Change

Change Management, Organizational Change
Organizations may take one of the following three approaches to planned change: - Structural Approach: The structural a...
Information Sources

Various sources of information regarding the Six Change Approaches. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


Your Organization Needs to Change its Strategy Implementation Method

Strategy Execution, Strategic Change, Change Management, Strategy Implementation
Dr. John Kotter explains most clearly how the rate of change of events, technology, globalization, products and markets ...

How to Communicate Organizational Change to Affected Audiences

Organizational Change, Change Management, Change Communications
This presentation elaborates on the process of communicating change towards those affected by the change. The presentati...

Effective Change Leadership and Management: Principles, Frameworks and Tools

Change Management, Change Leadership
Comprehensive presentation on leadership and management in a change context. 1. Introduction and Overview 2. What is t...

Organizational Change & Dev.

Organizational Change Overview
Overview paper on Organisational Change and Development by Sharika Gupta Sr. deals with following topics: 1. INTRODUCTI...

Resistance to Change and Its Management

Change Management, Resistance to Change, Change Resistance
This presentation focuses on a specific dimension of change management, namely the management of resistance to change of...

Dealing with Resistance to Change

Change Management, Resistance to Change
This presentation focuses on resistance to change and ways to overcome or prevent it. The presentation has good graphics...

Change Management versus Change Leadership

Understanding the Difference Between Change Management and Change Leadership
This video explores and explains some differences between Change Management and Change Leadership: CHANGE MANAGEMENT ...

Managing Organizational Change

Change Management, Leading Change, Organizational Development
This is a presentation about the ways to manage change. The presentation includes the following sections: 1. Introducti...

Dealing with Strong Resisters

Dealing with Resistance to Change, Change Management, Training, Workshop
Dr. John Kotter gives remarkable advice on dealing with "No, No, People" (strong resisters in change initiatives). Acco...

Compensation for Change

Change compensation
This paper by Karen Hopper Wruck explains why establishing a strong, positive relation between rewards and performance i...

Managing Organizational Change and Managing Stress

Organizational Change; Change Management; Stress Management
Presentation about organizational change with a special emphasis on stress management. The presentation includes the fol...

Research Links

Jump to further research sources regarding the Six Change Approaches.


News

News

Videos

Videos

Presentations

Presentations

 
Books

Books

Academic

Academic

More

More


Compare with the Six (6) Change Approaches: Change Phases  |  Contingency Theory  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Leadership Styles  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  Organic Organization  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  People CMM  |  Change Management  |  Dimensions of Change  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work  |  Levels of Culture  |  Office of Strategy Management  |  Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |   Human Resources  |   Leadership  |  Program & Project Management  |  Strategy & Innovation


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group

Do you know a lot about the Six Change Approaches? Become our SIG Leader



About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2023 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V16.1 - Last updated: 5-2-2023. All names ™ of their owners.