Six Change Approaches
(Kotter)

Knowledge Center

   

Dealing with resistance to change. Explanation of Six Change Approaches of Kotter and Schlesinger. ('79)

Contents

Premium

The Six (6) Change Approaches of Kotter and Schlesinger is a model to prevent, decrease or minimize resistance to change in organizations.


Reasons for resistance to change

According to Kotter and Schlesinger (1979), there are four reasons that certain people are resisting change:

  1. Parochial self-interest. Some people are more concerned with the implication of the change for themselves and how it may affect their own interests, rather than considering the effects for the success of the business.

  2. Misunderstanding. Communication problems; inadequate information.

  3. Low tolerance of change. Certain people are very keen on feeling secure and having stability in their work.

  4. Different assessments of the situation. Some employees may disagree with the reasons for the change and with the advantages and disadvantages of the change process.

Six approaches to deal with resistance to change

Kotter and Schlesinger have set out the following six (6) change approaches to deal with change resistance:

  1. Education and Communication. Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis. One of the best ways to overcome resistance to change is: to inform and educate people about the change effort beforehand. Preceding communication and education helps employees see the logic in the change effort. This reduces unfounded and incorrect rumors concerning the effects of change in the organization.

  2. Participation and Involvement. Where the initiators do not have all the necessary information to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist. When employees are involved in the change effort they are more likely to want change rather than resist it. This approach is likely to decrease resistance of those, who merely acquiesce in the change.

  3. Facilitation and Support. Where people are resisting change, because of adjustment problems. By being supportive of employees during difficult times, managers can prevent potential resistance. Managerial support helps employees to deal with their fear and anxiety during a transition period. The basis of resistance to change is likely to be: the perception that there will be some form of detrimental effect occasioned by the change in the organization. Typical for this approach are special training and counseling, outside normal office premises.

  4. Negotiation and Agreement. Where someone or some group may lose out because of a change, and where that individual or group has considerable power to resist. Managers can combat resistance by offering incentives to employees not to resist change. This can be done by allowing people who are resisting the change to veto certain elements of change that are threatening. Or the people who are resisting the change can be offered incentives to leave the company through early buyouts or through retirements. In order to avoid the experience of the change effort. This approach will be appropriate where those resisting change are in a position of power.

  5. Manipulation and Co-optation. Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive. Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that an effective manipulation technique is: to co-opt with people who are resisting the change. Co-optation involves bringing a person into a change management planning group for the sake of appearances rather than their substantive contribution. This often involves selecting leaders of the people who are resisting the change, to participate in the change effort. These leaders can be given a symbolic role in decision-making, without threatening the change effort. Note this: if these leaders feel that they are being tricked, they are likely to push resistance even further than if they were never included in the change effort leadership.

  6. Explicit and Implicit Coercion. Where speed is essential. And to be used only as last resort. Managers can explicitly or implicitly force employees into accepting change, by making clear that resistance to change can lead to: jobs losses, dismissals, employee transfers, or not promoting employees.


Six Change Approaches Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group (876 members)


Six Change Approaches Forum  

Recent topics

  Everyone is Part in Change
There is a saying that says "you either get better or you get worse"; you don't stay the same.
So anyway you slice it, you are part of change, it...
     
 
  Change Leadership AND Change Management: 2 Parts of the Same Whole
Thank you for the video of this week explaining the differences between Change...
     
 
  Organizational Ideology as a Change Approach
I believe another (7th) approach to change could be: 'Organizational Ideology'.
Ideological change following the situation is a competency and sh...
     
 

Best Practices - Six Change Approaches
  Why Communication is Crucial in Change Processes
Communication is a very critical process in today's challenging times. The success factor is proper communication on:
- Why the change is inevita...
     
 
  5th Reason for Resistance to Change: Over Protectiveness of the Status Quo
I am managing a change program for a voluntary organisation for people with learning disabilities whose over caring attitude has developed over decade...
     
 
  Dealing with Resistance to Change
- MAINTAINING STATUS QUO means living and working within the known and the comfort zone.
- CHANGE means going beyond frontiers of the known, lear...
     
 
  Manage Change Like a Salesman
In order to make effective change, the manager has to believe in the change. It is top down. You hear words like "buy in" which means a manager has to...
     
 
  First Values and Culture
I believe that the change must be made by participation and involvement but first we have to work on organization values and culture because we have t...
     
 



All you need to know about management


  Resistance to Change Types
Resistance to change can be considered along various dimensions:
- Individual versus Collective resistance
- Passive versus Active resistan...
     
 
  Change Ability is a Core Competence
The ability of an organization to change quickly and successfully (skillfully combining above and other change approaches) can be viewed as a
     
 
  Combining Kotter's Change Approaches?
It is a prerequisite to the selection of the appropriate change approach to understand the change management iceberg model of  
   
 
  Participatory Approaches Towards Taking on Change
I think you will find in most cases larger organisations will use a programmatic approach, i.e. a top dow...
     
 
  Using Change Approaches for Post-election Violence
Extremely useful information. I used it to advice people on post election violence and on how they can manage change....
     
 
  Expansion (Change) in Business Focus
Our company is undergoing a major change. We are expanding in a very fast pace and it is a great change! Due to expansion, we have recruited a lot of ...
     
 
  Diversity and Inclusion
When organizational change involves creating a more diverse and inclusiveness work environment, resistance by some employees may be embedded in fundam...
     
 
  Trust, change and management
Trust creates trust, mistrust creates mistrust! Managers should create trust in order to be trusted by others. A barrier towards mistrust is a lack of...
     
 
  Displacement Through Change
Forging change of a political government and of leadership in a country may mean displacement of political leaders in power. In such case, it appears ...
     
 
  Approach #7 to Deal with Resistance
I would add 7th approach. This is facilitation to inner, spiritual development of all those involved into change. Wise people do not resist change, bu...
     
 
  First the Rational and Hard Factors
Organizational change management can be effectively carried if the rational and hard factors are addressed first before applying the models which are ...
     
 
  Resistance to Change not Just Self-Interest
The first factor in resistance, self interest, may be something less "toxic" and that is complacency (Editor: ~self-satisfaction). At first an ...
     
 
  Change Dynamics of People Being in the Organization for a Long Time
It seems to me as if the longer people stay in an organisation, the more resistance they develop to any change initiative - despite their advantages. ...
     
 
  Kotter Change Model and ADKAR Model
I am comparing Kotter's model with ADKAR from Prosci, they closely resemble each other though Kotter seems to be more forceful in implementing change....
     
 
  The Origin of Resistance to Change
It is my belief that resistance to change stems from fear and lack of information. When free-flow of information forms part of the policy of an organ...
     
 
  Why *assume* they are wrong and we are right?
Too many of these explanations for why "they" are fearful, uninformed, unaware are simply an excuse for failing to consider all the implications of th...
     
 
  Mention Change in Introduction Training
It is advisable to emphazise the subject of change (management) during the introduction training of new employees....
     
 

Expert Tips - Six Change Approaches
 

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

 
 
 

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

 
 
 

Categories of Change Tools and Approaches

 
 
 

What Change Agents Should I Use?

 
 
 

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

 
 
 

Types of Change. Classification

 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

 
 
 

Approaches to Planned Change

 
 



Advance yourself in business administration and management



Resources - Six Change Approaches

Your Organization Needs to Change its Strategy Implementation Method

 

How to Communicate Organizational Change to Affected Audiences

 

Effective Change Leadership and Management: Principles, Frameworks and Tools

 

Organizational Change & Dev.

 

Resistance to Change and Its Management

 

Dealing with Resistance to Change

 

Change Management versus Change Leadership

 

Managing Organizational Change

 

Dealing with Strong Resisters

 

Compensation for Change

 

Finance Transformation: Change Management

 

Managing Organizational Change and Managing Stress

 
 

News about Change Kotter


     
 

News about Change Resistance


     
 

Videos about Change Kotter


     
 

Videos about Change Resistance


     
 

Presentations about Change Kotter


     
 

Presentations about Change Resistance


     
 

Books about Change Kotter


     
 

Books about Change Resistance


     
 

More about Change Kotter


     
 

More about Change Resistance


     



Accelerate your management career



Compare with the Six (6) Change Approaches: Change Phases  |  Contingency Theory  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Leadership Styles  |  Core Group Theory  |  Bases of Social Power  |  Organic Organization  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  People CMM  |  Change Management  |  Dimensions of Change  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work  |  Levels of Culture  |  Office of Strategy Management  |  Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |   Human Resources  |   Leadership  |  Program & Project Management  |  Strategy


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

 


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2018 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.0 - Last updated: 16-12-2018. All names ™ of their owners.