Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]
(Kelly)

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总结

Kevin Kelly发表在连线杂志的名篇

1997年9月5日出版的连线杂志(Wired)发表了新经济大师Kevin Kelly的一篇新锐文章,率先提出网络经济12法则。 根据Kelly,新经济代表着一种社会巨变,代表着人类生活方式的迁移和重构, 而绝不仅仅停留在硬件和软件的更新换代上。 新经济在孕育新的机会的同时,也有其自己的经济法则。 与时俱进、遵循新的游戏规则的人将乘着新经济的风帆收获累累硕果; 因循守旧、无视新经济法则的人将逐渐被历史淘汰。


新经济法则的四个基轴

Kelly认为,新经济法则围绕以下四个基轴运转:

  1. 财富来源与创新,而不是机会; 也就是说,财富不是来源于那些我们已经知道的, 而是来自于我们未知的。
  2. 培育未知需要超级的灵动和网络。
  3. 与未知共舞,则意味着要放弃已知世界,颠覆那些让我们为之骄傲的完美。
  4. 在网络经济日益壮大的过程中,“发现、培育、摧毁”这个游戏循环的速度越来越快,影响越来越烈。

Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]

以下内容就是Kevin Kelly提出的网络经济12法则的详细阐释:

  1. 联系法则(The Law of Connection。 拥抱无形力量: 由芯片组成的微观世界和日益扩张的电子世界与我们的联系更加紧密。
  2. 充裕法则(The Law of Plentitude。 节点越多,网络的体价值就越高: 数学家已经证明,一个网络的价值与是其节点数量成平方比。 换句话说,网络中的节点数按照算术法则提升,而网络的价值则按照指数法则提升。
  3. 指数价值法则(The Law of Expontial Value。 成功是非线性的: 与今日的巨大成功相比,微软公司创业前十年的利润可以忽略不计, 它的轰轰烈烈的上升是在1985年左右, 但是微软自此就进入了爆炸式的发展轨迹。
  4. 引爆法则(The Law of Tipping Points。 引爆点威力无穷: 根据流行病学理论,引爆点存在并出现于当一种地方病因为感染了足够多的宿主而成为流行病时, 此后,传染之力就会势如破竹、所向披靡。 在生物学上,致命疾病的引爆点往往都是相当高的,而在技术领域,即便受感染、影响的个体数量不多,亦有可能发生引爆效应。
  5. 渐增回报法则(The Law of Increasing Returns。 形成价值创造的良性圈子: 价值在圈子成员中间实现爆炸,价值爆炸又吸引进更多的成员,从而实现混合的、递增的价值回报。 有一句古老的谚语能够更简洁地表达这个法则: “付出者,必有回报”(Them that's got shall get)。
  6. 逆向定价法则(The Law of Inverse Pricing。 对于廉价的期望: 经过漫长的大工业时期,消费者已经被养成了“一分钱一分货”的思想认识,质量提高必然导致价格提升。 然而,微处理器的出现打破了这一价格恒等式。 信息时代的消费者将越来越有可能以较低的价格享用优质的产品和服务。 价格与质量的这种极端的逆向曲线关系似乎说明,东西越好,价格越低。
  7. 慷慨法则(The Law of Generosity。 免费紧随逆向定价之后: 在信息时代,免费已经成为一个广受欢迎的、明智的商业战略。 由于网络知识经济逆转了定价法则,网络知识的内在属性使得产品复制品(有形的或无形的)的边际成本几乎为零。 由于产品价值的提升与产品数量成正比,产品复制品数量的增加意味着产品价值的提升。 由于产品价值越高,它的需求就会越大,它的传播速度就会越快,而且能够实现自我传播。 一旦产品价值被市场认可,消费者者的依赖性得到确立,公司就可以提供附加服务、升级服务等实现创收和盈利。
  8. 忠诚法则(The Law of Allegiance。 培育网络为先: 网络的突出特征在于它没有明显的中心和边界, 工业时代你我、彼此泾渭分明的忠诚法则在网络时代越来越没有意义了, 在信息时代,忠诚法则唯一要求你关注的就是:你是否在网络中。 比较: Organization Chart[组织结构图]
  9. 退化法则(The Law of Devolution。 较之其他,这一法则更为重要: 信息时代的生物属性特征表现在:一个成熟领域突然之间的土崩瓦解会像一个新领域的突然出现一样自然, 在网络经济中,能够于巅峰时期放弃一件产品、职业或行业,需要非凡的能力。
  10. 位移法则(The Law of Displacement。 网络将大获全胜: 关于网络经济或者电子商务到底能够多大规模这样的问题, 将变得越来越没有意义,因为一切商务活动最终都将迁移到互联网上。
  11. “混沌”法则(The Law of "Churn")。 需求持续的不平衡: 网络经济的运动总是处在“混沌”变化之中, 快速的变化,即便有害,对于网络经济来说仍然是非常重要的。 “搅动”,另一方面,是更可能印度神湿婆神、破坏创造性的军队和创世纪。 “混沌”在颠覆了既有的责任和义务的同时,又提供了一个更为理想的平台,迎接创新与新生。 它是一种“混合的创新”, 孕育于混沌之中。
  12. 无效法则(The Law of Inefficience。 不要解决问题: 在网络经济时代,生产力不再是我们的瓶颈, 我们解决社会经济问题的能力,将主要受制于我们的想象力,这种想象力将不再用来寻找最佳方案,而是要致力于发现并抓住新的机会。 用Peter Drucker 和 George Gilder的话说,就是:“把问题丢在一边,去寻找新的机会吧”。

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