Customer Satisfaction Model[顾客满意度模型]
(Kano)

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衡量顾客的满意程度。 Kano的Customer Satisfaction Model[顾客满意度模型]详解。 (‘84)

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Kano用户满意模型

什么是顾客满意度模型(Customer Satisfaction Model)? 释义

N. Kano的顾客满意度模型是一项质量管理工具和市场营销技术,可以被用来衡量顾客的满意程度。


顾客满意度模型甄别出6类质量属性,其中前3类对顾客满意度产生实质性影响:

  1. 基本因素(Basic Factors。 (不满足要素,必须有的。)顾客对产品的最低限度需求, 必须有。)- 顾客对产品的最低限度需求,如果缺了这些基本因素,会让顾客感到不满;但是,即便产品包含了或者超出了它们,也不会让顾客产生满足感, 顾客想当然地以它们为先决因素。 基本因素是进入市场的最低门槛要求。
  2. 兴奋因素(Excitment Factors)。 (满足因素,有吸引力的。) - 有了这些因素,会增强顾客的满足感;即便缺了它们的话,也不至于让顾客产生不满。 这些因素让顾客感到惊喜,并产生“愉悦的感觉”。 产品包含这些因素,就能将自己的企业与竞争对手区别开来,使自己处于有利地位。
  3. 性能因素(Performance Factors。 如果产品性能表现很好,顾客则表示满意;如果产品性能表现很差,顾客则产生不满。 这里,性能表现与总体满足感是线型对称的。 以上这三个因素与顾客的需求、期望直接相关,因此,公司在这些方面一定要具有竞争性。

除此以外,Kano还提到了其他三个属性:

  1. 冷漠属性(Indifferent attributes)。 顾客对于有无这些属性并不在意。
  2. 可疑属性(Questionable attributes。 对于这些属性,并不清楚它们是不是顾客所期待的。
  3. 背离属性(Reverse Attributes。 这些属性特征的相反方面才是顾客所期望的。
     

顾客满意度模型起源 历史

这种顾客满意度的研究方法源于一篇Kano与人合写并发表在日本质量控制协会会刊《品质》上的文章,题目为《诱人品质与必需品质》(1984) 。 39-48.


顾客满意度模型运用。 应用

除了可以明显用于质量控制、市场推广等领域,顾客满意度模型还能用于哪些方面?2004年,Kurt Matzler, Matthias Fuchs 和 Astrid Schubert在《全面质量管理》(Total Quality Manage)上合作发表了一篇文章题为《员工满意度:Kano的模型管用吗?》 (“Employee Satisfaction DoesKano's Model Apply?”) (Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 11月-12月2004) Kano的模型在用户满意因素是否也是相关描述雇员满意。 因为员工可以被视为企业内部顾客, 他们的结论就是,Kano的模型同样可以用来分析衡量内部顾客的满意度。


顾客满意度模型的应用步骤 流程

Kano制作了一份问卷来帮助找出上述六种因素,

  1. 问卷为产品的每一项特征都准备了两个问题,顾客可以从备选的五个答案中任选一;
  2. 前一个问题测试的是,如果产品含有这一因素顾客的反应(功能良好型问题);
  3. 后一个问题测试的是,如果产品不含这一因素顾客的反应(功能不良型问题);
  4. 通过对两个问题答案的组合分析,就可以总结出该项产品特征属于哪一因素。

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最佳实践 - 顾客满意度模型 高级帐户
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Customer Satisfaction Model 高级帐户
 

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Extreme Customer Trust as a Source of Competitive Advantage

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比较:  SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]  |  Customer Relationship Management[顾客关系管理]  |  Operational CRM[运营型顾客关系管理]  |  Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]  |  Total Quality Management[全面质量管理]  |  Quality Function Deployment[质量功能展开]  |  Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]


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