Kundnöjdhetsmodell
(Kano)

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Kano customer satisfaction model (Kano's Kundnöjdhetsmodell)

Vad är modellen för kundnöjdhet? Beskrivning

Modellen för kundtillfredsställelse/nöjda kunder från N. Kano är en kvalitetsstyrning och marknadsföringsteknik som kan användas för att mäta kundnöjdhet.


Kano's modell för kundnöjdhet särskiljer sex kategorier för olika kvalitets attribut, från vilka de tre första faktiskt inverkar på kundtillfredsställelsen:

  1. Grundläggande faktorer. (Icke tillfredställare. Måste finnas.) - de lägsta krav, som kommer att orsaka ett missnöje om de inte fullgörs men inte orsakar kundnöjdhet om de uppfylls (eller överskrids). Kunden betraktar dessa som nödvändiga förutsättningar och tar dessa för givet. Grundläggande faktorerna upprättar ett lägstavärde för överhuvudtaget kunna var med på på spelplanen ”ingångsvärde”.
  2. Spänningsfaktorer. (Tillfredställare. Attraktivt.) - faktorerna som förhöjer kundnöjdheten, om de levereras men inte orsaka missnöje, om de inte levereras. Dessa faktorer förvånar kunden och frambringar ”nöjdhet”. Genom att använda dessa faktorer kan ett företag särskilja sig från sina konkurrenter på ett positivt sätt.
  3. Prestationsfaktorer. Faktorerna, som orsakar nöjdhet, om prestationen är hög och de orsakar missnöje, om prestationen är låg. Här är attributet totalresultatnöjdheten linjär och symmetrisk. Typiskt för dessa faktorer är att de är direkt kopplade till kunders uttalade behov och förväntningar och ett företag, bör anstränga sig till att vara konkurrenskraftiga här.

De extra tre attributen som Kano omnämner är:

  1. Ointressanta attribut . Kunden kommer inte att bry sig om dessa egenskaper.
  2. Tvivelaktiga attribut. Det är oklart om huruvida detta attribut förväntas av kunden.
  3. Motsatta attribut. Den motsatta produktegenskapen förväntades av kunden.
     

Ursprunget till modellen för kundnöjdhet. Historia

Tillvägagångssättet för analysering av kundnöjdhet publicerades först i en artikel av KANO, N. SERAKU, N., TAKAHASHI, F. & TSUJI, S. (1984) Attractive quality and must-be quality, Hinshitsu (Quality, the Journal of Japanese Society for Quality Control), 14, pp. 39-48. 39-48.


Användning till modellen för kundtillfredsställelse. Användningsområden

Förutom den självklara kvalitets- ledningen och marknadsföraanvändningen Kurt Matzler, Matthias Fuchs och Astrid Schubert undrar anställdtillfredsställelse i för deras artikel ”: Gör Kano modelltillämpa?”, (Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, November-December 2004) huruvida Kano's modellen också är relevant för att beskriva anställdas nöjdhet. Sedan de anställda kan betraktas som interna kunder. De kommer fram till uppfattningen att Kano's teori är synnerligen användbar också för intern kundanalys.


Stegen i modellen för kundtillfredsställelse. Process

Kano utvecklade ett frågeformulär för att identifiera den grundläggande, prestationen och spänningsfaktorerna såväl som de andra tre extra faktorerna.

  1. För varje produktegenskap ett par frågor formuleras som kunden kan svara på från ett av fem olika alternativ.
  2. Den första frågan berör reaktionen hos kunden, om produkten visar dess egenskap (funktionell fråga);
  3. Den andra frågan berör reaktionen hos kunden, om produkten INTE visar dess egenskap (icke fungerande fråga).
  4. Genom att kombinera svaren, kan alla attribut klassificeras in i de sex faktorerna.

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Best Practices

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Experttips

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