Modelo Kano | Modelo de Satisfacción del Cliente de Kano

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Resumen

Modelo de la satisfacción de cliente de Kano

¿Qué es el modelo de la satisfacción del cliente? Explicación

El modelo de la satisfacción del cliente de N. Kano es la Gestión de calidad y una técnica de comercialización que se puede utilizar para medir la satisfacción del cliente.


El modelo de Kano de satisfacción de cliente distingue seis categorías de las cualidades de la calidad, de las cuales las tres primeras tienen influencia sobre la satisfacción del cliente:

  1. Factores básicos. (Insatisfactores. Obligatorio.) - son los requisitos mínimos que causarán el descontento del cliente si no se satisfacen, pero que no causan la satisfacción de cliente si se satisfacen (o se exceden). El cliente mira éstos como requisitos previos y toma éstos por descontados. Los factores básicos establecen una entrada “umbral” o mínima para atender al mercado.
  2. Factores de entusiasmo. (Satisfactores. Atractivos.) - son los factores que aumentan la satisfacción de cliente si son entregados pero no causan el descontento si no se entregan. Estos factores sorprenden al cliente y generan “placer”. Usando estos factores, una compañía puede realmente distinguirse de sus competidores de una manera positiva.
  3. Factores del desempeño. Los factores que causan la satisfacción, si el desempeño es alto, y causan el descontento si el desempeño es bajo. Aquí, la satisfacción del funcionamiento promedio de la cualidad es lineal y simétrico. Estos factores están conectados típicamente directamente con las necesidades explícitas de los clientes y los deseos y una compañía deben intentar ser competitivos aquí.

Las tres cualidades adicionales que Kano menciona son:

  1. Cualidades indiferentes. El cliente no le presta atención a estas características.
  2. Cualidades cuestionables. No es claro si esta cualidad es espera por el cliente.
  3. Cualidades inversas. Esta característica de producto, a la inversa, era la esperada por el cliente.
     

Origen del modelo de la satisfacción del cliente. Historia

El acercamiento hacia el análisis de la satisfacción de cliente primero fue publicado en un artículo por Kano, N. SERAKU, N., TAKAHASHI, F. y TSUJI, "Calidades atractivas y calidad obligatoria", Hinshitsu (Quality, the Journal of Japanese Society for Quality Control), 14 de S. (1984), pp. 39-48.


Uso del Modelo de Satisfacción del Cliente. Aplicaciones

Además de la gestión de la calidad y del uso obvio de la comercialización, Kurt Matzler, Matthias Fuchs y Astrid Schubert se preguntan en su artículo "Satisfacción del Empleado: Es aplicable el modelo de Kano?” (Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, noviembre-diciembre 2004) si el modelo de Kano  de factores de satisfacción del cliente es también relevante para describir la satisfacción del empleado. Puesto que los empleados pueden ser percibidos como clientes internos. Alcanzan la conclusión que la teoría de Kano es de hecho usable para el análisis interno de los clientes también.


Pasos en el Modelo de Satisfacción del Cliente. Proceso

Kano desarrolló un cuestionario para identificar los factores básicos, de desempeño y de entusiasmo, así como los otros tres factores adicionales.

  1. Para cada característica de producto se formulan un par de las preguntas las cuales el cliente puede contestar en una de cinco diferentes maneras.
  2. La primera pregunta se refiere a la reacción del cliente sobre si el producto presenta esa característica (pregunta funcional);
  3. La segunda pregunta se refiere a la reacción del cliente sobre si el producto no muestra esta característica (pregunta disfuncional).
  4. Combinando las respuestas todas las cualidades, se pueden clasificar dentro de los seis factores.

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Consejos de Expertos

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Advantages of Kano’s Model

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Compare el Modelo Kano, con:   SERVQUAL  |  Marketing Relacional  |  Gestión de la Relación con el Cliente  |  CRM Operacional  |  Teoría de los dos Factores  |  Gestión de calidad total TQM  |  Despliegue de la Función Calidad  |  Jerarquía de Necesidades


Vuelva a matriz general de categorías: Recursos Humanos  |  Conocimiento e Intangibles  |  Marketing  | Cadena Logística & Calidad


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