Intrinsic Stakeholder Commitment[内部相关者认同]
The Normative Approach[规范性方法]

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总结

内部相关者认同理论(Intrinsic Stakeholder Commitment)是由Berman、Wicks、Kotha、Jones等人最先阐述的,并发表于1999年10月刊的《管理学会杂志》(Academy of Management Journal, 42卷第5期), 在理论研究过程中,他们运用了Edward Freeman的规范性方法(The Normative Approach)。


什么是内部相关者认同? 释义

这个理论模型之所以称之为内部相关者(或规范性相关者)认同模型,是因为相关者利益自有其内在价值。 这些利息进入做在战略考虑之前的公司的决定,并且他们形成一个道德基础为公司策略。


就利益相关者理论而言,规范性方法认为,


管理人员必须处理好与利益相关者的关系。


据此,公司对于利益相关者的管理关系就必须建立在规范的、道德认同之上, 而不是建立在一种单纯利用、利益压榨的动机之上。 简而言之,公司必须建立一些基本的道德原则。 这些原则将指导公司如何开展经营活动,尤其处理与利益相关者的关系。 公司将视这些原则为其战略决策的基础。

内在利益相关者奉献基准方法 规范化模型起源于这样的事实——公司的任何决策必然会对利益相关者造成影响。 一般而言,当个人或组织的行为决策对他人产生影响时,伦理就会介入,对其责任义务进行规范。 且不论一个伦理的、道德的决策应该精确包含哪些内容,一个对他人影响不作考量的决策通常被认为是不道德的。 Donaldson 和 Preston准确地把握了利益相关者管理中的这一基本思想,他们在1995年发表的一篇著作中写道,利益相关者利益自有其内在价值。 也就是说,利益相关者的一些要求主张应该成为公司伦理原则的基础。 尽管对一个公司来说,尽管它们与利益相关者的工具性价值并不相关。 任何公司都不能对这些要求主张置若罔闻,仅仅因为它们与公司战略无补,甚至还带来麻烦。 事实上,这些诉求凌驾于公司战略之上,应优先考量, 从而成为公司战略的基础。 它们包含着这样的信息,“我们是一个公司,那么公司又什么?我们要做些什么?什么对我们来说才是最重要的?”

如此从利益相关者出发,公司战略就能够充分融入道德义务的考量。 对此,康德哲学的一种态度(Bowie,1994;Evan & Freeman,1983), 女权主义的一种观点(Wicks、Gilbert、Freeman,1994),以及公平契约的一种方法(Freeman,1994;Phillips,1997) 都是利益相关者管理中形成规范性基础的道德原则的典型例子。 Freeman 和 Gilbert对这一观点所作的阐释说明:

除非我们能够在所持有的伦理、价值与企业经营活动之间找到交点(也就是说,企业的活动要能够印证这些伦理、价值), 我们是很难将伦理道德与公司战略联系起来的。 要将公司战略建立在伦理之上,使公司业务流程避免落入于后设理性(Post Hoc Rationalization)巢臼,我们需要问自己:“我们代表谁?” 并将此融入我们的战略决策过程。 (1988)

基于道德原则的规范化模型的另一起源与这样一个观点有关:对道德的战略认同不仅在概念上是错误的,在实践中也是无效的。 只有在道德原则成为优点、优势的情况下,公司才会对其进行战略考量。 很显然,这种认识与道德原则的初衷根本就是南辕北辙。 此外,Quinn 和 Jones 在1995年发表的一篇文章中还驳斥道,如果道德行为的目的就是为了追名逐利,那么公司何不直截了当地博取名声,为什么还得假道德之名? 尽管,在很多情况下公司行为与道德规范相符,但在另一些情况下,它们可能又不相符。 如果一个人做事效率很高,又极富建设性,在考虑与不考虑伦理道德的两种情况下,会有什么不同?

Jones(1995)认为,从实践角度来看,利益相关者管理即便只是为了追求务实的工具利益(Instrumental Benefits),也只能来源于不计利益的、对道德原则的真正认同,尽管这听起来有些前后矛盾。 他说,公司如果能够在互信、合作的基础上与利益相关者建立、保持关系,那么较之那些没有这么做的公司,它就有了竞争优势(比较:Barney & Hansen,1994)。 如果一个公司仅仅将互信、合作视为战略需要,而不是内在认同,那么对它来说想要长久保持这么一种诚挚作风与诚信声誉是困难的(Frank,1988)。 换句话说,信用、诚实及正直是很难伪装的。 所以,要想从利益相关者管理中获益,公司就必须与利益相关者建立互为认同的道德关系, 而不要预期任何利益。 战略性地运用道德原则,不是真正的道德认同, 而且,也不可能产生期待的战略结果。


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比较: Strategic Stakeholder Management[利益相关者战略管理]  |  Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]  |  Moral Purpose[道德目的]  |  Value Based Management[价值管理]  |  Clarkson Principles[克拉克森原则]  |  Strategic Intent[战略意图]  |  Shareholder Value Perspective[股东价值观]  |  Stakeholder Value Perspective[利益相关者价值观]  |  Stakeholder Analysis[利益相关者分析]  |  Stakeholder Mapping[利益相关者分析图]


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