Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]
(Hofstede)

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衡量不同国家文化差异、价值取向的五个主要尺度。 Geert Hofstede的Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]解析。 (‘80)

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Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度] 根据Geert Hofstede的研究,这个世界上根本就不存在任何一种放之四海而皆准的管理理论或方法。 即便“管理”(Management)一词,在不同的国家也有着不同的起源和内涵。 管理并非是社会生产生活中的一种孤立现象, 它与发生在家庭里、学校里、政府中、政治生活中的各种事件、活动水乳交融, 亦与宗教、科学信仰紧密相关。


Hofstede认定的五个文化尺度

Hofstede的五个文化尺度是用来衡量不同国家文化差异、价值取向的一个有效架构:

  • 权力距离。 一国范围内人与人之间的不平等程度。

  • 个人主义与集体主义。 个人对于人际关系(他们所属的家庭或组织)的认同与重视程度。

  • 男性气质与女性气质。 男性气质的文化有益于权力、控制、获取等社会行, 与之相对的女性气质文化则更有益于个人、情感以及生活质量。

  • 不确定性规避。 一国范围内人们对于结构性情景(相对于非结构性情景、非常规态势)的偏爱程度。

  • 长期取向与短期取向。 长期: 着眼于未来的价值取向,比如储蓄习惯和坚持力。 短期: 着眼于短期和眼前的价值取向,比如尊重传统、重视履行社会义务。

要了解一个国家的管理文化,你不仅仅要有关于这个国家的知识,还要对它的文化有一个完整概念,能够心领神会。 Hofstede的独特统计调研法给出的结果告诉我们,即便在处理最基本的社会问题上,另一个国家的人们的思想、感受以及行动可能都会和我们有很大的差别。 Hofstede的文化尺度理论同时提醒管理人员与战略家们必须牢记: 人类总会习惯性地根据根据他的既有经验去思考、感受和行动,尤其是在国际环境中工作的时候。

 

参考书: Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values -

参考书: Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind -


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