Cultural Dimensions [문화차원 모델]
(Hofstede)

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요약

Cultural Dimensions [문화차원 모델] Geert Hofstede에 따르면, 전세계적으로 유효한 보편적인 경영방법 또는 경영이론은 없다고 한다. 심지어 전세계적으로 국가에 따라 경영(managment)이라는 단어의 어원과 의미는 다르다고 한다. 경영은 사회에서 일어나고 있는 다른 프로세스와 격리될 수 있는 현상이 아니다. 그것은 가족, 학교, 정치, 정부에서 일어나는 일들과 상호작용한다. 또한 종교, 과학에 대한 신념 등과도 관련이 있는 것은 명백하다.


Hofstede의 5가지 문화차원

Geert Hofstede의 문하차원모델은 국가문화간 5가지 차원의 차이와 가치관을 묘사하는 모델이다.

  • 권력 거리(Power distance). 한 나라의 사람들이 정상적이라고 여기는 사람들 사이의 불평등의 정도.

  • 개인주의 대 집산주의 (Individualism versus collectivism). 자신, 가족 또는 자신들이 속한 조직을 보호하거나 그들이 보호받아야 된다고 느끼는 정도.

  • 남성 대 여성 (Masculinity versus femininity). 문화가 사물의 획득, 주장, 지배에 이바지하는 정도 對 사람, 감정, 삶의 질에 더 이바지한다는 정도.

  • 불확실성 회피 (Uncertainty avoidance). 한 국가에 속한 사람들이 비구조화된 것보다 구조화된 상황을 선호하는 정도.

  • 장기지향 대 단기지향 (Long-term versus short-term orientation). 장기: 저축, 끈기같은 미래지향적 가치들. 단기: 전통에 대한 존중, 사회적 의무의 수행 등 과거와 현재지향적인 가치들.

한 국가에서 경영을 이해하기 위해서, 사람들은 모든 지방에 대한 지식과 공감대를 갖고 있어야한다. 그러나, Hofstede가 실행한 독특한 통계조사의 점수는, 사회의 기본적인 문제에 직면할 때라도, 모든 사람들이 다른 국가에 있는 사람들이 자신들과는 매우 다르게 생각하고, 느끼고 행동하는 것을 인식시켜주어야 한다. 경영 또는 전략을 다루는 사람들에게 Hofstede의 문화차원이론의 교훈을 항상 명심하도록 조언해야 한다. 인간은 특히 국제적으로 일할 때, 자신들의 경험을 바탕으로 생각하고 느끼고 행동하는 교활한 경향을 갖고 있다.

 

참고도서: Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values

참고도서: Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind


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관련 개념: Cultural Intelligence [문화 지능]  |  Bottom of the Pyramid [BOP 시장]  |  Maslow Hierarchy of Needs [욕구계층이론]  |  Coaching [코칭]  |  리더십 파이프라인  |  Mentoring [멘토링]  |  Herzberg Two Factor Theory [2 요인 이론]  |  ERG 이론   |  Spiral Dynamics [나선형 역동성이론]  |  Ashridge 미션 모델  |  X이론 Y이론


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  의사소통과 기법들  |  의사결정과 가치평가  |  윤리와 책임  |  인적 자원  |   리더십  |  마케팅  |  프로그램과 프로젝트 관리  |  전략


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