Dimensions Culturelles
(Hofstede)

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Résumé

Dimensions Culturelles Selon Geert Hofstede, il n'y a rien de pareil à une méthode de gestion universelle ou à une théorie de gestion, valide à travers le monde entier. Même le mot « gestion » a différentes origines et significations dans les pays à travers le monde. La gestion n'est pas un phénomène qui peut être isolé dans des autres processus ayant court dans la société. Il interagit avec ce qui se produit dans la famille, à l'école, dans la politique, et au gouvernement. On le lie évidemment également à la religion et aux convictions au sujet de la science.


Les Cinq Dimensions Culturelles de Hofstede

Le modèle des dimensions culturelles de Geert Hofstede est un cadre qui décrit cinq sortes (dimensions) de différences / perspectives de valeur entre les cultures nationales :

  • Distance au pouvoir. Le degré d'inégalité parmi les personnes d'une population qu'un pays considère comme normale.

  • Individualisme versus collectivisme. Le point auquel les personnes sentent qu'elles sont supposés prendre soin de, ou sont prises en charge par eux-mêmes, leurs familles ou les organisations auxquels ils appartiennent.

  • Masculinité versus féminité. Le point auquel une culture favorise la dominance, l'autoritarisme et l'acquisition des choses. Contre une culture qui favorise les personnes, les sentiments et la qualité de la vie.

  • Suppression de l'incertitude. Le degré auquel les personnes dans un pays préfèrent des situations structurées par rapports à celles non structurées.

  • Orientation long-terme versus court-terme. Sur le long terme : valeurs orientées vers le futur, comme faire des économies et être persévérant. À court terme : valeurs orientées vers le passé et le présent, comme le respect pour la tradition et de remplir ses engagements sociaux.

Pour comprendre la gestion dans un pays, on devrait avoir la connaissance et l'empathie avec la société locale dans son ensemble. Cependant, les points de l'enquête statistique unique que Hofstede a réalisée devraient prévenir tout le monde que des personnes dans d'autres pays peuvent penser, sentir, et agir très différemment d'eux-mêmes, même lorsqu'ils sont confronté aux problèmes de base de la société. Ayant à traiter de Gestion ou de Stratégie, toute personne est bien mieux conseillé de se rappeler constamment les leçons de la théorie des Dimensions Culturelles de Hofstede. Les êtres humains ont la fâcheuse tendance à penser et sentir et agir de leurs propres expériences, particulièrement quand ils travaillent internationalement.

 

Livre : Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences : International Differences in Work-Related Values

Livre : Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind


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Forum sur Dimensions Culturelles (Gestion Interculturelle).


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(Practical) Usages and Application of Hofstede's theory
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Idées avancées sur Cultural Dimensions (Cross Cultural Management) (Anglais). Vous trouverez ici des conseils professionnels d'experts.


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