Dimensiones Culturales
(Hofstede)

Centro de Conocimiento



Resumen, foro, mejores prácticas, consejos de expertos y fuentes de información.


Resumen

Dimensiones Culturales Según Geert Hofstede, no existe una cosa tal como el método universial de administración o una teoría de gestión universal, válida en todo el mundo entero. Incluso la palabra “Gestión” tiene diversos orígenes y significados en los distintos países del mundo. La Gestión no es un fenómeno que se pueda aislar de otros procesos que ocurren en la sociedad. Ésta interactúa con lo que sucede en la familia, en la escuela, en la política, y en el gobierno. Obviamente, también se relaciona con la religión y con las creencias sobre la ciencia.


Los cinco dimensiones culturales de Hofstede

El modelo cultural de las dimensiones de Geert Hofstede es un marco que describe cinco clases (dimensiones) de diferencias/de perspectivas de valor, entre las culturas nacionales:

  • Distancia del poder. El grado de desigualdad entre la gente, que la población de un país, considera como normal.

  • Individualismo versus colectivismo. El grado a partir del cual la gente siente que debe cuidar o ser cuidado por ellos mismos, por sus familias o por las organizaciones a las que pertenece.

  • Masculinidad versus feminidad. El grado a el cual una cultura es conducente a la dominación, a la asertividad y a la adquisición de cosas. Contra una cultura que es más inclinada a la gente, a las sensaciones y a la calidad de la vida.

  • Evasión de la incertidumbre. El grado en el cual la gente de un país prefiere situaciones estructuradas sobre situaciones no estructuradas.

  • Orientación de Largo plazo versus orientación de corto plazo. Largo plazo: valores orientados hacia el futuro, como el ahorro y la persistencia. A corto plazo: valores orientados hacia el pasado y el presente, como el respeto por la tradición y la satisfacción de obligaciones sociales.

Para entender la gestión en un país, uno debe tener conocimiento y empatía con la escena local completa. Sin embargo, los resultados del único examen estadístico que Hofstede realizó, debería alertar a pensar que la gente en otros países puede pensar, sentir, y actuar de forma muy diferente que ellos mismos; incluso cuando se enfrentan a problemas básicos de la sociedad. Se aconseja que cualquier persona que trate temas de gestión o de Estrategía debe recordar constantemente las lecciones de la teoría de las Dimensiones Culturales de Hofstede. Los seres humanos tienden tomar la falsa posición de pensar, sentir y actuar sobre la base de sus propias experiencias, especialmente cuando trabajan internacionalmente.

 

Libro: Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values

Libro: Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind


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