Cultural Dimensions

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Investigating five sorts (dimensions) of differences / value perspectives between national cultures. Explanation of Cultural Dimensions of Geert Hofstede. ('80)


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Cultural DimensionsAccording to Geert Hofstede, there is no such thing as a universal management method or management theory, valid across the whole world. Even the word 'management' has different origins and meanings in countries throughout the world. Management is not a phenomenon that can be isolated from other processes taking place in society. It interacts with what happens in the family, at school, in politics, and government. It is obviously also related to religion and to beliefs about science.

The five Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede

The cultural dimensions model of Geert Hofstede is a framework that describes five sorts (dimensions) of differences / value perspectives between national cultures:

  • Power distance. The degree of inequality among people which the population of a country considers as normal.

  • Individualism versus collectivism. The extent to which people feel they are supposed to take care for, or to be cared for by themselves, their families or organizations they belong to.

  • Masculinity versus femininity. The extent to which a culture is conducive to dominance, assertiveness and acquisition of things. Versus a culture which is more conducive to people, feelings and the quality of life.

  • Uncertainty avoidance. The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over unstructured situations.

  • Long-term versus short-term orientation. Long-term: values oriented towards the future, like saving and persistence. Short-term: values oriented towards the past and present, like respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.

To understand management in a country, one should have both knowledge and empathy with the entire local scene. However, the scores of the unique statistical survey that Hofstede carried out should make everybody aware that people in other countries may think, feel, and act very differently from yourself, even when confronted with basic problems of society. Any person dealing with Management or Strategy is well advised to constantly remember the lessons from Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory. Human beings have a deceiving tendency to think and feel and act from their own experiences, especially when they work internationally.


Book: Geert Hofstede - Cultures Consequences : International Differences in Work-Related Values -

Book: Geert Hofstede - Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind -

Cultural Dimensions Forum
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  Dimensions of Hofstede Applied on a Company
Is it possible to use the Model by Hofstede on a company?
What I am looking for is a model to give insight in how a company currently works, the company culture. I might add some other things to the 5 dimensions.
I want to compare this to a...
  The Influence of Culture on Employee Motivation and Performance
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Hofstede gave five dimensions to help explain the culture of the country they can also be applied to organization with little modifications. The five dimensions are:
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  Croatia Cultural Analysis
Has anyone done a cultural analysis on Croatia using Hofstede? Thanks...
  The Value of Cultural Differences: what Matters?
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  Seven Dimensions of Culture (Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner)
Model of National Culture Differences.
Fons Trompenaars is a Dutch author and consultant in the field of cross-cultural communication. His books include: Riding the Waves of Culture, Seven Cultures of Capitalism, Building Cross-Cultural C...
  Cultural Dimensions in Management Styles
Hofstede's 5 dimensions to me determine whether a society is masculine or feminine. Our management style is determined by which type of society in which we function; feminine or masculine.
I may be wrong but it seems to me that most devel...
  Hofstede Dimensions on Malta
I would like to know whether there have been any exchanges of views or studies vis-a-vis Hofstede's 5 dimensions on Malta, being at the centre of the Mediterranean with undoubtedly many cultural influences through its long history. Thank you....
  Examples of Hofstede Five Dimensions
Can you please provide some examples of comparison between Toyota and General Motors or any two similar companies in relation to Hofstede's five dimensions of culture? Thanks...
  Supply Chain Partners' Cultural Differences
I am trying to find out how cultural differences between supply chain partners can influence the overall performance of the chain. Any ideas or recommended materials?...
  Critique of Hofstede
Does anyone know where to find good academic articles critisising Hofstedes cultural analysis? Any particular models and/or authors?...
  Hofstede vs. Hampden-Turner
Does anyone know the difference between Hofstede's cultural model and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner’s Seven Cultural Dimensions....
  Importance of RESPECT in Various Cultures
I believe respect for authority, age, position, has blurred and decreased - over time, sometimes because people have proven themselves unworthy of respect. Some cultures retain greater respect for adults, males, people in position, older people, etc...
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Best Practices - Cultural Dimensions Premium
  Doing Business in Asia | Understanding Chinese Culture
Asia’s rapid rise to economic prominence marks the beginning of a trend that will increase in the future. The Chinese economy, the second largest in the world, is currently attracting more direct investment than any other nation.
Asia’s growing ...
  I Need Another Model!!!
Hi. I am doing a contrast and comparison between Hofstede's model and another... I need to find another model to compare to... Please help me!...
  Are Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions still Valid?
Hofstede cultural dimensions are over 30 years old. Are they still valid.. that can be questioned....

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