Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]



激励因素与保健因素。 Frederick Hertzberg的Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]和KITA理论解析。



Two Factor Theory Diagram美国心理学家Frederick Hertzberg的二因素理论(Two Factor Theory)试图证明,个人对工作的态度在很大程度上决定着任务的成功与失败,Hertzberg研究证明,个人对工作的满意与否受两个因素制约: 能给人们带来满意和心理成长的因素,通常都是工作内在的,即由工作本身所决定的激励因素(Motivation Factors; 而引起人们不满意的往往是一些工作外的因素,大多与人们的工作条件和环境有关,Hertzberg称之为保健因素(Hygiene FactorsHerzberg通过对两百多名美国的会计、工程师等白领工作者的调查,从而总结出了“二因素理论”(Two Factor Theory),又称“保健-激励理论”(Motivation-Hygiene Theory)。


  • 保健因素处理不好,会引发员工的不满情绪;处理得好,则可以预防或消除这种不满。 然而,保健因素并不能对员工产生激励作用,只能起到保持人的积极性、维持工作现状的作用。所以保健因素又称为“维持因素”。
  • 激励因素处理得好,不仅能够产生满意情绪,而且能够促进人们产生更好的绩效;如果处理不当,其不利效果顶多是没有满意情绪,但不会导致不满。 激励因素源于工作内在的促发动力。


  • 工作环境

  • 管理和监督

  • 薪水

  • 状态

  • 安全

  • 公司

  • 工作

  • 公司政策与治理

  • 人际关系


  • 工作成就感

  • 工作成就得到的认可

  • 工作上的责任感

  • 工作富有趣味

  • 高水平的工作要求

  • 晋升与成长


  • 高保健因素 + 高激励因素: 最理想的工作情境,员工具有较高的工作热情,鲜有不满情绪。

  • 高保健因素 + 低激励因素: 员工没有不满情绪,但是也没有较高的工作热情, 工作的目的就是为了薪水。

  • 低保健因素 + 高激励因素: 员工存有高度工作热情的同时,对工作条件也有很多不满。 这种情境往往出现于那些具有挑战性和鼓舞人心的工作, 但是薪水和工作条件却差强人意。

  • 低保健因素 + 低激励因素: 这属于最坏的工作情境, 员工既无工作热情,又有大量怨气。


  • 扩大工作范围,
  • 轮换工作岗位,
  • 充实工作内容。

除了二因素理论以外,Frederick Hertzberg还有一个著名的KITA理论,即打屁股(Kick In The Arse),后来这一提法被改成更为文雅的KITP,即踢裤子(Kick In The Pants)。Herzberg的话说,KITA不能够产生任何工作激励, 它的作用只在于使员工动起来。

二因素理论 小组

小组 (32名成员)



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Research on Civility by Christine Porath revealed that the 20,000 respondents (employees from all over the world) ranked "respect" as the mo...
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Traditional purposes of job titles are standardization and benchmarking. They are sources and reflections of formality and rigidity or mechanis...

最佳实践 - 二因素理论
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  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a small company (5-10 employees)?
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  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?
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  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
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  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
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  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
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  Social and Environment Issues Missing in 2 Factor Theory?
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  Additional Hygiene Factors
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  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
Many enterprises transform their structures merging several organisational cultures in cycles.
How can the staff remain motivated when changes a...
  Stratification and Herzberg
I wonder how well Hertzberg translates to an organisation with flat structures and little upward mobility? I believe it used to be called 'stratificat...
  Hygiene Factor & Information Systems
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  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
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  Motivation Hygiene applies Everywhere
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Two Factor Theory

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比较: 马斯洛(Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  Hawthorne Effect[霍索恩效应]  |  Customer Satisfaction model[顾客满意度模型]  |  Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |   Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Theory of Needs[需求理论]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]

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