Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]
(Hertzberg)

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激励因素与保健因素。 Frederick Hertzberg的Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]和KITA理论解析。

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Two Factor Theory Diagram美国心理学家Frederick Hertzberg的二因素理论(Two Factor Theory)试图证明,个人对工作的态度在很大程度上决定着任务的成功与失败,Hertzberg研究证明,个人对工作的满意与否受两个因素制约: 能给人们带来满意和心理成长的因素,通常都是工作内在的,即由工作本身所决定的激励因素(Motivation Factors; 而引起人们不满意的往往是一些工作外的因素,大多与人们的工作条件和环境有关,Hertzberg称之为保健因素(Hygiene FactorsHerzberg通过对两百多名美国的会计、工程师等白领工作者的调查,从而总结出了“二因素理论”(Two Factor Theory),又称“保健-激励理论”(Motivation-Hygiene Theory)。


保健-激励因素

  • 保健因素处理不好,会引发员工的不满情绪;处理得好,则可以预防或消除这种不满。 然而,保健因素并不能对员工产生激励作用,只能起到保持人的积极性、维持工作现状的作用。所以保健因素又称为“维持因素”。
  • 激励因素处理得好,不仅能够产生满意情绪,而且能够促进人们产生更好的绩效;如果处理不当,其不利效果顶多是没有满意情绪,但不会导致不满。 激励因素源于工作内在的促发动力。

典型的保健因素

  • 工作环境

  • 管理和监督

  • 薪水

  • 状态

  • 安全

  • 公司

  • 工作

  • 公司政策与治理

  • 人际关系

典型的激励因素

  • 工作成就感

  • 工作成就得到的认可

  • 工作上的责任感

  • 工作富有趣味

  • 高水平的工作要求

  • 晋升与成长

二因素组合构成的四种情境:

  • 高保健因素 + 高激励因素: 最理想的工作情境,员工具有较高的工作热情,鲜有不满情绪。

  • 高保健因素 + 低激励因素: 员工没有不满情绪,但是也没有较高的工作热情, 工作的目的就是为了薪水。

  • 低保健因素 + 高激励因素: 员工存有高度工作热情的同时,对工作条件也有很多不满。 这种情境往往出现于那些具有挑战性和鼓舞人心的工作, 但是薪水和工作条件却差强人意。

  • 低保健因素 + 低激励因素: 这属于最坏的工作情境, 员工既无工作热情,又有大量怨气。

Herzberg建议,工作可以而且应该按照以下方法来安排组织:

  • 扩大工作范围,
  • 轮换工作岗位,
  • 充实工作内容。

除了二因素理论以外,Frederick Hertzberg还有一个著名的KITA理论,即打屁股(Kick In The Arse),后来这一提法被改成更为文雅的KITP,即踢裤子(Kick In The Pants)。Herzberg的话说,KITA不能够产生任何工作激励, 它的作用只在于使员工动起来。


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