Two Factor Theory [2 요인 이론]
(Herzberg)

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요약

Two Factor Theory DiagramFrederick Herzberg의 2요인 이론에 따르면 사람들은 2가지 요인의 영향을 받는다. 만족과 심리적 성장은 동기요인의 결과 요인이다. 불만족은 위생요인의 결과이다. Herzberg는 미국에서 200여명의 회계사 그리고 엔지니어들을 조사하여 동기이론을 개발했다.


2가지 요인

  • 위생요인은 직원이 불만족을 느끼지 않도록 하기 위해여 필요하다. 위생요인은 높은 수준의 동기를 유발시키지 않지만 그것들이 없다면 불만족이 있게 된다.
  • 동기요인은 직원들의 더 높은 성과를 위해 동기를 부여하기 위해 필요하다. 이러한 요인들은 직원들의 내부로부터 생성되는 결과이다.

일반적인 위생요인

  • 근무 조건

  • 감독의 질

  • 급료

  • 지위

  • 안전

  • 회사

  • 회사 방침과 행정

  • 대인간 관계

일반적인 동기요인

  • 성취

  • 성취에 대한 인식

  • 업무에 대한 책임

  • 흥미로운 일

  • 상급수준의 업무로 이동.

  • 성장

위생요인과 동기요인을 결합한 4가지 시나리오 :

  • 높은 위생 + 높은 동기: 이상적인 상황으로 직원들은 높은 동기를 갖고 있고 불만이 거의 없다.

  • 높은 위생 + 낮은 동기: 직원들은 불만이 적지만 동기부여되어 있지 않다. 직업은 급료를 위한 것으로 인식된다.

  • 낮은 위생 + 높은 동기: 직원들은 동기부여되어 있지만 많은 불만을 갖고 있다. 직업이 흥미롭고 도전적인 곳의 상황. 그러나 급료 및 작업조건은 좋지 않다.

  • 낮은 위생 + 낮은 동기: 최악의 상황. 직원들은 동기부여되어 있지 않고 많은 불만을 갖고 있다.

Herzberg는 작업은 다름과 같은 방식으로 준비될 수 있고 준비되어야 한다고 제안하였다.

  • 직무 확대
  • 직무 순환
  • 직무 다양화

2요인 이론 외에 Frederick Herzberg는 또한 KITA( Kick In The Pants!)라는 약어 때문에 많이 알려져있다. Herzberg KITA가 동기를 부여하지 않고 단지 행동만을 야기시킬뿐이라고 하였다.

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관련 개념: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs [욕구계층이론]  |  Hawthoren Effect [호손 효과]  |  소비자 만족도 모형 Kano  |  X이론 Y이론  |  Competing Values Framework [경쟁가치모형]Expectancy Theory [기대 이론]  |  ERG 이론   |  Cultural Dimensions [문화차원 모델]  |   Leadership Continuum [리더십 차원]  |  필요의 이론  |  Managerial Grid [관리망]


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