Teoria dei Due Fattori

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Fattori Motivazionali, Fattori di Igiene. Spiegazione di Teoria dei Due Fattori e di KITA di Frederick Herzberg.



Two Factor Theory DiagramSecondo la Teoria dei Due Fattori di Frederick Herzberg le persone sono influenzate da due fattori. La soddisfazione e lo sviluppo psicologico sono fattori risultanti dei fattori motivazionali. Il malcontento era un risultato dei fattori di igiene. Herzberg ha sviluppato questa teoria della motivazione durante la sua indagine su 200 contabili e ingegneri degli USA.

I due fattori della teoria

  • I fattori di igiene sono necessari affinchè un impiegato non sia insoddisfatto. Non causano alti livelli di motivazione, ma senza igiene c'è malcontento.
  • I fattori motivazionali sono necessari per motivare un impiegato a raggiungere performance elevate. Questi fattori derivano da generatori interni agli impiegati.

tipici Fattori di igiene

  • Condizioni di lavoro

  • Qualità del controllo

  • Stipendio

  • Condizione

  • Sicurezza

  • Azienda

  • Lavoro

  • Politiche e gestione dell'azienda

  • Rapporti interpersonali

tipici Fattori motivazionali

  • Successo

  • Riconoscimento per il successo

  • Responsabilità lavorativa

  • Lavoro interessante

  • Avanzamento a ruoli di livello più alto

  • Crescita

I quattro scenari risultanti dalla combinazione dei fattori motivazionali e dei fattori di igiene

  • Alto livello di igiene + Molta motivazione: La situazione ideale dove gli impiegati sono altamente motivati e fanno pochi reclami.

  • Alto livello di igiene + Poca motivazione: Gli impiegati fanno pochi reclami ma non sono molto motivati. Il lavoro è percepito solo come uno modo per percepire uno stipendio.

  • Basso livello di igiene + Molta motivazione: Gli impiegati sono motivati ma fanno molti reclami. Una situazione dove il lavoro è eccitante e competitivo. Tuttavia gli stipendi e le condizioni lavorative non vanno bene.

  • Basso livello di igiene + Poca motivazione: La situazione peggiore. Gli impiegati non sono motivati e fanno molti reclami.

Herzberg sostiene che spesso il lavoro può essere organizzato, e idealmente dovrebbe essere organizzato nei seguenti modi:

  • allargamento delle mansioni
  • rotazione delle mansioni e/o
  • miglioramento delle condizioni di lavoro.

Oltre alla Teoria dei Due Fattori, Frederick Herzberg è anche conosciuto per il suo acronimo KITA, che è stato educatamente tradotto come Calcio Nei Pantaloni! Herzberg ha detto che il KITA non produce motivazione. Ma soltanto movimento.

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