Teoria dei Due Fattori

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Fattori Motivazionali, Fattori di Igiene. Spiegazione di Teoria dei Due Fattori e di KITA di Frederick Herzberg.


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Two Factor Theory DiagramSecondo la Teoria dei Due Fattori di Frederick Herzberg le persone sono influenzate da due fattori. La soddisfazione e lo sviluppo psicologico sono fattori risultanti dei fattori motivazionali. Il malcontento era un risultato dei fattori di igiene. Herzberg ha sviluppato questa teoria della motivazione durante la sua indagine su 200 contabili e ingegneri degli USA.

I due fattori della teoria

  • I fattori di igiene sono necessari affinchè un impiegato non sia insoddisfatto. Non causano alti livelli di motivazione, ma senza igiene c'è malcontento.
  • I fattori motivazionali sono necessari per motivare un impiegato a raggiungere performance elevate. Questi fattori derivano da generatori interni agli impiegati.

tipici Fattori di igiene

  • Condizioni di lavoro

  • Qualità del controllo

  • Stipendio

  • Condizione

  • Sicurezza

  • Azienda

  • Lavoro

  • Politiche e gestione dell'azienda

  • Rapporti interpersonali

tipici Fattori motivazionali

  • Successo

  • Riconoscimento per il successo

  • Responsabilità lavorativa

  • Lavoro interessante

  • Avanzamento a ruoli di livello più alto

  • Crescita

I quattro scenari risultanti dalla combinazione dei fattori motivazionali e dei fattori di igiene

  • Alto livello di igiene + Molta motivazione: La situazione ideale dove gli impiegati sono altamente motivati e fanno pochi reclami.

  • Alto livello di igiene + Poca motivazione: Gli impiegati fanno pochi reclami ma non sono molto motivati. Il lavoro è percepito solo come uno modo per percepire uno stipendio.

  • Basso livello di igiene + Molta motivazione: Gli impiegati sono motivati ma fanno molti reclami. Una situazione dove il lavoro è eccitante e competitivo. Tuttavia gli stipendi e le condizioni lavorative non vanno bene.

  • Basso livello di igiene + Poca motivazione: La situazione peggiore. Gli impiegati non sono motivati e fanno molti reclami.

Herzberg sostiene che spesso il lavoro può essere organizzato, e idealmente dovrebbe essere organizzato nei seguenti modi:

  • allargamento delle mansioni
  • rotazione delle mansioni e/o
  • miglioramento delle condizioni di lavoro.

Oltre alla Teoria dei Due Fattori, Frederick Herzberg è anche conosciuto per il suo acronimo KITA, che è stato educatamente tradotto come Calcio Nei Pantaloni! Herzberg ha detto che il KITA non produce motivazione. Ma soltanto movimento.

Teoria dei Due Fattori Forum
  Teoria Duale di Herzberg
La rotazione delle mansioni potrebbe anche essere un fattore di igiene e alcuna volte, soprattutto quando è richiesta dal diretto interessato, un fattore motivazionale.
Ma l'attuazione della rotazione come influisce nel medio periodo sull'econom...
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  Nothing Flourishes Without Attention
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  Privacy at Work
When it comes to office spaces, organizations are always trying to find a balance between on the one hand public and on the other hand private workspace in order to encourage collaboration. However, public spaces are often criticized as it ass...
  PROs and CONs of Employee Of the Month Programs
A common recommended and used form to increase employees’ motivation and performance is Employee-Of-the-Month (EOM). Such a strategy would boost morale through employee rewards and giving credits to excellent employees.
  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
What challenges an employee at any phase in his life is the motivator.
Sometimes, earning more money is seen as a challenge by an employee, depending on his experience and urge to cross a social strata or a barrier.
Sometimes money just wor...
  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a small company (5-10 employees)?
Any experiences? Does anyone know of a simple set of tools?...
  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
This theory need not be confined to any type of business situation. It can be used for interaction between any two individuals to understand how individuals are motivated whenever they interact...
The factors established by this theory are univ...
  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
Many enterprises transform their structures merging several organisational cultures in cycles.
How can the staff remain motivated when changes are made in the organisations values, collectiveness, consistency etc... In the adage of old wine and...
  Avoid Under and over Motivation
Under motivated as well as over motivated workers both have negative effects in productivity. A balance has to be developed in order for workers to act normally, never discouraged nor disgusted and extremely anxious and expectant of rewards or...
  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
Never forget: money remains the primary motivating factor of employees....
Here in Uganda, the oldest national university Makerere has been closed due to striking lecturers over poor pay. They don't complain about harassment or poor working envi...
  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors
Deeply felt internal motivational factors can overcome demotivating factors.
Such positive internal motivational factors could be a strong belief of cause or a smart direction of the organization....
  Motivation Engenders Commitment
Adequately motivated staff are usually more committed to perform optimally.
More often than not, they are happy on their beats which could be due to their being satisfied with the welfare, training and perquisites they are enjoying from their em...
  Additional Hygiene Factors
Though the theory covers many of the reasons, I believe others factors like management style, organization culture, office politics, training standards also should come under the hygiene factor.
Without the proper management of these fact...
  Two Factor Theory 2.0
2 Factor Theory may be applied in any type of organizations and in all levels. But, again there are other elements in the work environment which may effect the motivation of employees and the organization results.
Since knowledge, such as...
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
I think Herzberg's theory fits hundred percent perfect for present day organizations. Human minds need motivations so often... In the mean time hygiene factors also play a vital part in job satisfaction....
  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
Is the model applicable in non-government organizations where officers are not receiving remunerations in whatever kind where the pressing concern is how to drive them to perform to their best level?...
  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
Where should we position STRESS in this 2 Factor Theory? Please explain... Thank you......
  Education Motivation
Where does educational motivation fit in?...
  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
It may seem not very practical to apply this theory in some parts of the world, like the third world. Going through Herzberg's theory in detail I have just realised it's the best work situation that bears fruit for both employee and employer. I would...

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Migliori Pratiche - Teoria dei Due Fattori Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
In the current crisis, it's important to keep your innovation effort at a high level. Martha E. Mangelsdorf writes in MITSloan Management Review Vol 40 No 3 p. 24 about an analysis by Professors Henry Sauermann and Wesley M. Cohen on what makes em...
  How to measure motivation?
(How) Can motivation be measured?...

Expert Tips (ENG) - Two Factor Theory Premium

Drivers and Levers of Employees

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices", Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria mention 4 drives underlying everything we do:
Usage (application): Improving Employee Motivation

Examples of Two Factor Model

I would like to compare Herzberg's 2 factor model to a human body (organisation):
- The disease-infected human body (unhealthy organisation) can ...
Usage (application): Teaching Two Factor Theory

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to Herzberg

I find it interesting that Herzberg separates dissatisfaction and satisfaction as whole different feelings apart from one another. He says dissatisfac...
Usage (application): Important Note

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at employees or coachees for motivation purposes is described by Heidi Grant Halverson and E. Tory Higgins in HBR March 20...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, consumer) needs is to break them down into:
- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
Usage (application): Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations

Base your Workspace Design on Employee Interaction

Many innovative organizations of today have faith that more open spaces triggers personal interactions, performance, creativity and innovation. Becaus...
Usage (application): Workspace Design, Innovation Environment, Employee Interaction, Office Space Design

How to Avoid Too Much Transparency and Allow Some Privacy

In an article “The Transparency Trap” it is argued that although a certain level of transparency does drive out wasteful and unfair practices and enc...
Usage (application): Corporate Transparency, Employee Privacy

Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job Embeddedness

Mitchell, Lee and Tyler (2014) focus on the contextual (or external) factors that influence employees’ staying, instead of emphasizing the fact...
Usage (application): Employee Retention, Attrition, Organizational Commitment, Employee Satisfaction

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance

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