Théorie des Deux Facteurs
(Hertzberg)

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Résumé

Two Factor Theory DiagramSelon la Théorie des deux facteurs (Two Factor Theory) de Frederick Hertzberg les personnes sont influencés par deux facteurs. La satisfaction et la croissance psychologique sont un facteur de résultat des facteurs de motivation. Le mécontentement était un résultat des facteurs d'hygiène. Hertzberg a développé cette théorie de la motivation pendant ses recherches sur 200 comptables et techniciens & ingénieurs aux Etats-Unis.


Les deux facteurs dans la théorie

  • Les facteurs d'hygiène sont nécessaires pour s'assurer qu'un employé ne devient pas mécontent. Ils ne causent pas des niveaux plus élevés de motivation, mais sans eux il y a mécontentement.
  • Les facteurs de motivation sont nécessaires afin de motiver un employé à un rendement plus élevé. Ces facteurs résultent des générateurs internes des employés.

Facteurs typiques d'hygiène

  • Conditions de travail

  • Qualité de la supervision

  • Salaire

  • Statut

  • Sécurité

  • Entreprise

  • Travail

  • Politiques et administration d'entreprise

  • Rapports interpersonnels

Facteurs typiques de motivation

  • Réalisation

  • reconnaissance de la réalisation

  • Responsabilité de tâches

  • Travail intéressant

  • Avancement pour des tâches de plus haut niveau

  • Croissance

quatre scénarios résultent de la Combinaison des facteurs d'hygiène et de motivation 

  • Hygiène élevée + Motivation haute : La situation idéale où les employés sont hautement motivés et ont peu de plaintes.

  • Hygiène élevée + Motivation basse : Les employés ont peu de plaintes mais ne sont pas hautement motivés. Le travail est perçu comme un travail alimentaire.

  • Hygiène basse + Motivation haute : Les employés sont motivés mais ont beaucoup de plaintes. Une situation où le travail est passionnant et provocant. Cependant salaires et conditions de travail ne sont pas CORRECTS.

  • Hygiène basse + Motivation basse : La situation la pire. Les employés ne sont pas motivés et ont un bon nombre de plaintes.

Hertzberg suggère que souvent le travail puisse être organisé et devrait être organisé des 3 manières suivantes :

  • élargissement des tâches
  • rotation de poste, et/ou
  • valorisation du travail.

Sans compter que la Théorie des deux facteurs, Frederick Hertzberg est également connue sous son acronyme KITA, qui a été poliment traduit par "Kick In The Pants" ou "Coup de pied au cul" (traduction Française moins polie mais plus proche de la réalité NDLR) ! Hertzberg a indiqué que le KITA ne produit pas la motivation. Mais seulement le mouvement.


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