Théorie des Deux Facteurs

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Facteurs de motivation, facteurs d'hygiène. Explication de la Théorie des Deux Facteurs de KITA et Frederick Hertzberg.


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Two Factor Theory DiagramSelon la Théorie des deux facteurs (Two Factor Theory) de Frederick Hertzberg les personnes sont influencés par deux facteurs. La satisfaction et la croissance psychologique sont un facteur de résultat des facteurs de motivation. Le mécontentement était un résultat des facteurs d'hygiène. Hertzberg a développé cette théorie de la motivation pendant ses recherches sur 200 comptables et techniciens & ingénieurs aux Etats-Unis.

Les deux facteurs dans la théorie

  • Les facteurs d'hygiène sont nécessaires pour s'assurer qu'un employé ne devient pas mécontent. Ils ne causent pas des niveaux plus élevés de motivation, mais sans eux il y a mécontentement.
  • Les facteurs de motivation sont nécessaires afin de motiver un employé à un rendement plus élevé. Ces facteurs résultent des générateurs internes des employés.

Facteurs typiques d'hygiène

  • Conditions de travail

  • Qualité de la supervision

  • Salaire

  • Statut

  • Sécurité

  • Entreprise

  • Travail

  • Politiques et administration d'entreprise

  • Rapports interpersonnels

Facteurs typiques de motivation

  • Réalisation

  • reconnaissance de la réalisation

  • Responsabilité de tâches

  • Travail intéressant

  • Avancement pour des tâches de plus haut niveau

  • Croissance

quatre scénarios résultent de la Combinaison des facteurs d'hygiène et de motivation 

  • Hygiène élevée + Motivation haute : La situation idéale où les employés sont hautement motivés et ont peu de plaintes.

  • Hygiène élevée + Motivation basse : Les employés ont peu de plaintes mais ne sont pas hautement motivés. Le travail est perçu comme un travail alimentaire.

  • Hygiène basse + Motivation haute : Les employés sont motivés mais ont beaucoup de plaintes. Une situation où le travail est passionnant et provocant. Cependant salaires et conditions de travail ne sont pas CORRECTS.

  • Hygiène basse + Motivation basse : La situation la pire. Les employés ne sont pas motivés et ont un bon nombre de plaintes.

Hertzberg suggère que souvent le travail puisse être organisé et devrait être organisé des 3 manières suivantes :

  • élargissement des tâches
  • rotation de poste, et/ou
  • valorisation du travail.

Sans compter que la Théorie des deux facteurs, Frederick Hertzberg est également connue sous son acronyme KITA, qui a été poliment traduit par "Kick In The Pants" ou "Coup de pied au cul" (traduction Française moins polie mais plus proche de la réalité NDLR) ! Hertzberg a indiqué que le KITA ne produit pas la motivation. Mais seulement le mouvement.

Forum de Théorie des Deux Facteurs
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  Nothing Flourishes Without Attention
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  Privacy at Work
When it comes to office spaces, organizations are always trying to find a balance between on the one hand public and on the other hand private workspace in order to encourage collaboration. However, public spaces are often criticized as it ass...
  PROs and CONs of Employee Of the Month Programs
A common recommended and used form to increase employees’ motivation and performance is Employee-Of-the-Month (EOM). Such a strategy would boost morale through employee rewards and giving credits to excellent employees.
  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
What challenges an employee at any phase in his life is the motivator.
Sometimes, earning more money is seen as a challenge by an employee, depending on his experience and urge to cross a social strata or a barrier.
Sometimes money just wor...
  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a small company (5-10 employees)?
Any experiences? Does anyone know of a simple set of tools?...
  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
This theory need not be confined to any type of business situation. It can be used for interaction between any two individuals to understand how individuals are motivated whenever they interact...
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  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
Many enterprises transform their structures merging several organisational cultures in cycles.
How can the staff remain motivated when changes are made in the organisations values, collectiveness, consistency etc... In the adage of old wine and...
  Avoid Under and over Motivation
Under motivated as well as over motivated workers both have negative effects in productivity. A balance has to be developed in order for workers to act normally, never discouraged nor disgusted and extremely anxious and expectant of rewards or...
  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
Never forget: money remains the primary motivating factor of employees....
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  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors
Deeply felt internal motivational factors can overcome demotivating factors.
Such positive internal motivational factors could be a strong belief of cause or a smart direction of the organization....
  Motivation Engenders Commitment
Adequately motivated staff are usually more committed to perform optimally.
More often than not, they are happy on their beats which could be due to their being satisfied with the welfare, training and perquisites they are enjoying from their em...
  Additional Hygiene Factors
Though the theory covers many of the reasons, I believe others factors like management style, organization culture, office politics, training standards also should come under the hygiene factor.
Without the proper management of these fact...
  Two Factor Theory 2.0
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Since knowledge, such as...
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
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  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
Is the model applicable in non-government organizations where officers are not receiving remunerations in whatever kind where the pressing concern is how to drive them to perform to their best level?...
  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
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  Education Motivation
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Meilleures Pratiques - Théorie des Deux Facteurs Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
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  How to measure motivation?
(How) Can motivation be measured?...

Expert Tips (ENG) - Two Factor Theory Premium

Drivers and Levers of Employees

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices", Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria mention 4 drives underlying everything we do:
Usage (application) : Improving Employee Motivation

Examples of Two Factor Model

I would like to compare Herzberg's 2 factor model to a human body (organisation):
- The disease-infected human body (unhealthy organisation) can ...
Usage (application) : Teaching Two Factor Theory

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to Herzberg

I find it interesting that Herzberg separates dissatisfaction and satisfaction as whole different feelings apart from one another. He says dissatisfac...
Usage (application) : Important Note

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at employees or coachees for motivation purposes is described by Heidi Grant Halverson and E. Tory Higgins in HBR March 20...
Usage (application) : Employee Motivation

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, consumer) needs is to break them down into:
- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
Usage (application) : Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application) : Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations

Base your Workspace Design on Employee Interaction

Many innovative organizations of today have faith that more open spaces triggers personal interactions, performance, creativity and innovation. Becaus...
Usage (application) : Workspace Design, Innovation Environment, Employee Interaction, Office Space Design

How to Avoid Too Much Transparency and Allow Some Privacy

In an article “The Transparency Trap” it is argued that although a certain level of transparency does drive out wasteful and unfair practices and enc...
Usage (application) : Corporate Transparency, Employee Privacy

Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job Embeddedness

Mitchell, Lee and Tyler (2014) focus on the contextual (or external) factors that influence employees’ staying, instead of emphasizing the fact...
Usage (application) : Employee Retention, Attrition, Organizational Commitment, Employee Satisfaction

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
Usage (application) : Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance

Ressources - Théorie des Deux Facteurs Premium


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