Teoría de los dos Factores
(Herzberg)

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Resumen

Two Factor Theory DiagramSegún la Teoría de los dos Factores de Frederick Herzberg, hay dos factores que influencian a la gente. La satisfacción y el crecimiento psicologico son factores resultantes de los factores de la motivación. El descontento es un resultado de los factores de higiene. Herzberg desarrolló esta teoría de la motivación durante su investigación con 200 contadores e ingenieros en los E.E.U.U.


Los dos factores en la teoría

  • Los factores de higiene son necesarios para asegurar que un empleado no este descontento. No causan niveles de motivación más altos, pero sin ellos habrá descontento.
  • Los factores de motivación son necesarios para motivar al empleado hacia un mayor desempeño. Estos factores provienen de los generadores internos de los empleados.

Factores típicos de la higiene

  • Condiciones de trabajo

  • Calidad de la supervisión

  • Sueldo

  • Estatus

  • Seguridad

  • Compañía

  • Tarea

  • Políticas de la compañía y de administración

  • Relaciones interpersonales

Factores típicos de motivación

  • Logro

  • Reconocimiento por el logro

  • Recibir responsabilidad por determinadas tareas

  • Trabajo interesante

  • Promoción a realizar tareas de alto nivel

  • Crecimiento

Combinar los factores de la higiene y de la motivación resulta en el panorama cuatro

  • Alta higiene + Alta motivación: La situación ideal donde los empleados están altamente motivados y tienen pocas quejas.

  • Alta higiene + Baja motivación: Los empleados tienen pocas quejas pero no son altamente motivados. El trabajo se percibe como el cobro de un cheque.

  • Baja higiene + Alta motivación: Los empleados son motivados pero tienen muchas quejas. Una situación donde el trabajo es emocionante y desafiante. Sin embargo, los sueldos y las condiciones del trabajo no son aceptables.

  • Higiene baja + Baja motivación: Es la peor situación. Los empleados no están motivados y tienen un montón de quejas.

Herzberg sugiere que a menudo el trabajo se puede arreglar y debería ser arreglado de las siguientes maneras:

  • Ampliación de las tareas
  • Rotación de tareas, y/o
  • Enriquecimiento de trabajo.

Además de la Teoría de los dos Factores, la teoría de Frederick Herzberg también es conocida por sus siglas KITA, que se traduce cortésmente como Patada en los pantalones! Herzberg dijo que KITA no produce la motivación. Sino que sólo le da movimiento.


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