Two Factor Theory
(Herzberg)

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Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. Explanation of Two Factor Theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg.

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Two Factor Theory DiagramAccording to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.


The two Factors in the Theory

  • Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
  • Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

  • Working conditions

  • Quality of supervision

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Safety

  • Company

  • Job

  • Company policies and administration

  • Interpersonal relations

Typical Motivation Factors

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • Responsibility for task

  • Interesting job

  • Advancement to higher level tasks

  • Growth

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

  • High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

  • High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

  • Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

  • Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.

Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:

  • job enlargement
  • job rotation, and/or
  • job enrichment.

Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.


Two Factor Theory Forum
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  Nothing Flourishes Without Attention
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  Privacy at Work
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  PROs and CONs of Employee Of the Month Programs
A common recommended and used form to increase emp...
     
 
  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
What challenges an employee at any phase in his li...
     
 
  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
How can you apply Herzberg 2 factor theory in a sm...
     
 
  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
This theory need not be confined to any type of bu...
     
 
  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
Many enterprises transform their structures mergin...
     
 
  Avoid Under and over Motivation
Under motivated as well as over motivated worke...
     
 
  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
Never forget: money remains the primary motivating...
     
 
  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors
Deeply felt internal motivational factors can over...
     
 
  Motivation Engenders Commitment
Adequately motivated staff are usually more commit...
     
 
  Additional Hygiene Factors
Though the theory covers many of the reasons, I be...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory 2.0
2 Factor Theory may be applied in any type of orga...
     
 
  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
I think Herzberg's theory fits hundred percent per...
     
 
  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
Is the model applicable in non-government organiza...
     
 
  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
Where should we position STRESS in this 2 Factor T...
     
 
  Education Motivation
Where does educational motivation fit in?...
     
 
  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
It may seem not very practical to apply this theor...
     
 
  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?
The theory is pretty good, but I am of the view th...
     
 

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Best Practices - Two Factor Theory Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
In the current crisis, it's important to keep your...
     
 
  How to measure motivation?
(How) Can motivation be measured?...
     
 

Expert Tips - Two Factor Theory Premium
 

Drivers and Levers of EmployeesSign up

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shape...
Usage (application): Improving Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Examples of Two Factor ModelSign up

I would like to compare Herzberg's 2 factor model ...
Usage (application): Teaching Two Factor Theory
 
 
 

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to HerzbergSign up

I find it interesting that Herzberg separates diss...
Usage (application): Important Note
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused EmployeesSign up

An interesting way to look at employees or coachee...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)Sign up

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, ...
Usage (application): Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and VolunteersSign up

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

Base your Workspace Design on Employee InteractionSign up

Many innovative organizations of today have faith ...
Usage (application): Workspace Design, Innovation Environment, Employee Interaction, Office Space Design
 
 
 

How to Avoid Too Much Transparency and Allow Some PrivacySign up

In an article “The Transparency Trap” it is argue...
Usage (application): Corporate Transparency, Employee Privacy
 
 
 

Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job EmbeddednessSign up

Mitchell, Lee and Tyler (2014) focus on the con...
Usage (application): Employee Retention, Attrition, Organizational Commitment, Employee Satisfaction
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job PerformanceSign up

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing ...
Usage (application): Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 

Resources - Two Factor Theory Premium

Human MotivationSign up

Comprehesive presentation on Human / Employee Moti...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 

Overview of Content and Process Motivation TheoriesSign up

Overview presentation of the major content moti...
Usage (application): Motivation, Needs, Incentives, Goal Setting, Behavior
 

Social-Exchange Theory and Organizational Support Theory and their Role in Employee MotivationSign up

Lecture about Social Exchange Theory and Organizat...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Perceived Organizational Support
 

First Introduction to Employee Engagement and Employee CommitmentSign up

Employees are the heart of an organization. Their ...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Employee Engagement and Commitment, Start of Training/Workshop
 

Two Factors Rocket DiagramSign up

Editable MS-Word diagram of Herzberg's Motivators ...
Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 

The Employee Commitment PyramidSign up

Stum (2013) developed the so-called Performance...
Usage (application): Employee Commitment, Employee Motivation
 

Intrinsic Motivation versus Extrinsic MotivationSign up

How can you do a better job of motivating your tea...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Motivation Types and Consequences
 

External and Internal MotivationSign up

Presentation about motivation, from a psychologica...
Usage (application): Motivation
 

Reasons and Secrets of Employee RetentionSign up

This presentation is about Employee Retention and ...
Usage (application): Employee Retention, Attrition
 

Managing Psychological Well-being in WorkplacesSign up

This presentation elaborates on the developing of ...
Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Performance Management, Stress Management, Workplace Management
 

Mindfulness and Wellbeing at WorkSign up

This presentation elaborates on the concept of min...
Usage (application): Wellbeing, Well-being, Mindfulness, Motivation, Employee Commitment Time Management, Coaching
 

Dealing with Harassment and Discrimination in WorkplacesSign up

Presentation about unsafe and unfriendly workplace...
Usage (application): Employee Harassment, Employee Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Workplace Harassment, Workplace Discrimination
 

The Workplace Environment and Aging IssuesSign up

This presentation discusses how a workplace can be...
Usage (application): Performance Management, Two-factor Theory, Absenteism, Presenteism
 

Fatigue Management as Responsibility of Employer and EmployeeSign up

This presentation elaborates on the management of ...
Usage (application): Fatigue Management, Human Resource Management, Absenteeism, Two Factor Theory, Commitment
 

Young Steve Jobs on the Role of ManagersSign up

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Usage (application): Management, Leadership, Talent Management, Talent Acquisition, Talent Development
 

Managing New, Dynamic Workplaces through Employee EngagementSign up

This presentation elaborates on the characteristic...
Usage (application): Workplace Management, Employee Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Burnout
 

Work-Family Conflicts and Work-Life PoliciesSign up

This presentation is about Work-Family Conflicts a...
Usage (application): Performance Management, Work-Life Balance, HR, Programs
 

3 Practical Ways to Deal with StressSign up

Workplace stress is very common and can cause high...
Usage (application): Coping with Stress, Avoiding Stress, Emotional Intelligence, Stress Management
 

Two Factor Theory DiagramSign up

Download and edit the 12manage PowerPoint model fo...
Usage (application): Employee Satisfaction / Frustration
 

How to Motivate your Employees: Personal CurrencySign up

Many managers and leaders struggle with the diffic...
Usage (application): Motivation, Management, Leadership
 

Introduction and Summary of Herzberg's Motivation TheorySign up

Hertzberg's Theory of Motivation explained:
-...
Usage (application): Initial understanding of the Two Factors, Trainings, Workshops
 
 

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Compare with: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Customer Satisfaction model Kano  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Competing Values FrameworkExpectancy Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Cultural Dimensions  |   Leadership Continuum  |  Theory of Needs  |  Managerial Grid


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