Two Factor Theory
(Herzberg)

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Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. Explanation of Two Factor Theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg.

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Two Factor Theory DiagramAccording to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.


The two Factors in the Theory

  • Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
  • Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

  • Working conditions

  • Quality of supervision

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Safety

  • Company

  • Job

  • Company policies and administration

  • Interpersonal relations

Typical Motivation Factors

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • Responsibility for task

  • Interesting job

  • Advancement to higher level tasks

  • Growth

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

  • High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

  • High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

  • Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

  • Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.

Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:

  • job enlargement
  • job rotation, and/or
  • job enrichment.

Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.


Two Factor Theory Forum
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  Is Lack of Of Challenge a Hygiene Factor?
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  Using Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in Small Companies
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  Scope of Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
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  How to Keep a Workforce Motivated at Crossroads
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  Avoid Under and over Motivation
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  Money Remains the Primary Motivating Factor!
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  Strong Motivational Factors Can Overcome Demotivating Factors
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  Motivation Engenders Commitment
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  Additional Hygiene Factors
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  Two Factor Theory 2.0
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  Two Factor Theory Still Holds Today?
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  Application of Two Factor Theory in Non-Governmental Organizations
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  Stress inTwo Factor Theory
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  Education Motivation
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  Hygiene and Motivation: Hand and Glove
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  What are (the Main) Causes of Attrition?
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Best Practices - Two Factor Theory Premium
  What motivates Employees to be more Innovative?
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  How to measure motivation?
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Expert Tips - Two Factor Theory Premium
 

Drivers and Levers of Employees

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Usage (application): Improving Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Examples of Two Factor Model

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Usage (application): Teaching Two Factor Theory
 
 
 

Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction According to Herzberg

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Usage (application): Important Note
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

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Usage (application): Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

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Usage (application): Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 
 

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Why Employees Stay: Contextual Factors Influencing Job Embeddedness

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Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

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Resources - Two Factor Theory Premium

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Two Factors Rocket Diagram

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The Employee Commitment Pyramid

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Intrinsic Motivation versus Extrinsic Motivation

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External and Internal Motivation

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Mindfulness and Wellbeing at Work

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Dealing with Harassment and Discrimination in Workplaces

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Usage (application): Employee Harassment, Employee Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Workplace Harassment, Workplace Discrimination
 

The Workplace Environment and Aging Issues

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Usage (application): Performance Management, Two-factor Theory, Absenteism, Presenteism
 

Fatigue Management as Responsibility of Employer and Employee

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Young Steve Jobs on the Role of Managers

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Two Factor Theory Diagram

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How to Motivate your Employees: Personal Currency

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Introduction and Summary of Herzberg's Motivation Theory

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Compare with: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Customer Satisfaction model Kano  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Competing Values FrameworkExpectancy Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Cultural Dimensions  |   Leadership Continuum  |  Theory of Needs  |  Managerial Grid


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