According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced
by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor
of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg
developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants
and engineers in the USA.
The two Factors in the Theory
Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not
become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but
without them there is dissatisfaction.
Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee
into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in
Typical Hygiene Factors
Quality of supervision
Company policies and administration
Typical Motivation Factors
Recognition for achievement
Responsibility for task
Advancement to higher level tasks
Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios
High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are
highly motivated and have few complaints.
High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are
not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.
Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot
of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However
the salaries and work conditions are not OK.
Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not
motivated and have lots of complaints.
Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged
in the following ways:
job rotation, and/or
Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known
for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick
In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But
Special Interest Group
Two Factor Theory (Human Motivation) Special Interest Group.
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