Two Factor Theory
(Herzberg)

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Motivation Factors, Hygiene Factors. Explanation of Two Factor Theory and KITA of Frederick Herzberg.


Two Factor Theory DiagramAccording to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.


The two Factors in the Theory

  • Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
  • Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.

Typical Hygiene Factors

  • Working conditions

  • Quality of supervision

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Safety

  • Company

  • Job

  • Company policies and administration

  • Interpersonal relations

Typical Motivation Factors

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • Responsibility for task

  • Interesting job

  • Advancement to higher level tasks

  • Growth

Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenarios

  • High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.

  • High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.

  • Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.

  • Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.

Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:

  • job enlargement
  • job rotation, and/or
  • job enrichment.

Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.


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Compare with: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs  |  Hawthorne Effect  |  Customer Satisfaction model Kano  |  Theory X Theory Y  |  Competing Values FrameworkExpectancy Theory  |  ERG Theory  |  Cultural Dimensions  |   Leadership Continuum  |  Theory of Needs  |  Managerial Grid


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