The Attribution Theory by Fritz Heider is a method that can be used for
evaluating how people perceive the behavior of themselves and of other people.
Attribution theory is about how people make causal explanations. In his 1958
book "The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations", Heider says that all behavior
is considered to be determined by either internal or by external factors:
External Attribution: causality is assigned to an outside factor,
agent or force. Outside factors fall outside your control. You perceive
you have no choice. So your behavior is influenced, limited or even completely
determined by influences outside your control. Therefore you feel not responsible.
A generic example is the weather. Also called: Situational Attribution.
Internal Attribution: causality is assigned to an inside factor,
agent or force. Inside factors fall inside your own control. You can choose
to behave in a particular way or not. So your behavior is not influenced,
limited or even completely determined by influences outside your control.
Therefore you feel responsible. A typical example is your own intelligence.
Also called: Dispositional Attribution.
One of the most amazing features of human beings is that we believe we
can explain anything. Research by psychologists has revealed that most people
are biased in their judgment of who or what is responsible for an event or
We tend to attribute the successes of others and our own failures to
external factors. We perceive these as not their own merit and
not our own fault.
We tend to attribute our own successes and failures of others to internal
factors. We perceive these as our own merit and their own fault.
Other factors that are believed to be relevant to attribution are:
Do we like another person or not? If so, internal
attributing is more likely in the case of success.
Is there a reward or punishment attached to a behavior?
If so, external attributing is more likely.
Is the other person highly motivated to achieve or not?
According to Weiner ('80), a high achiever will:
Approach rather than avoid tasks related to succeeding. Because he
believes success is due to high ability and effort which he is confident
of. Failure is thought to be caused by bad luck or a poor exam, i.e. not
his fault. Thus, failure doesn't hurt his self-esteem but success builds
pride and confidence.
Persist when the work gets hard rather than giving up. Because failure
is assumed to be caused by a lack of effort, which he can change by trying
Select challenges of moderate difficulty (50% success rate). Because
the feedback from those tasks tells you more about how well you are doing,
rather than very difficult or very easy tasks which tell you little about
your ability or effectiveness.
Work with a lot of energy because the results are believed to be determined
by how hard you try.
Attribution factors by Kelley (1967): Kelley advanced
Heider's theory by adding hypotheses about factors that affect the formation
Consistency information. The degree to which the actor performs
that same behavior toward an object on different occasions.
Distinctiveness information. The degree to which the actor
performs different behaviors with different objects.
Consensus information. The degree to which other actors perform
the same behavior with the same object.
Is the cause of the success or failure controllable or
not? A controllable factor is one which we believe we ourselves can alter
if we wish to do so. An uncontrollable factor is one that we do not believe
we can easily alter.
Achievement can be attributed to at least four things:
Effort. An internal and unstable factor over which we can exercise
a great deal of control.
Ability. A relatively internal and stable factor over which we
do not exercise much direct control.
Level of task difficulty. An external and stable factor that
is largely beyond our control.
Luck. An external and unstable factor over which we exercise
very little control.
Origin of the Attribution Theory. History
Heider first wrote about attribution theory in his book The Psychology
of Interpersonal Relationships (1958). The book played a central role in the
origination and definition of attribution theory. Jones and Davis' systematic
hypotheses about the perception of intention was published in 1965 in the
essay "From Acts to Dispositions." Kelley published "Attribution in Social
Psychology" in 1967. Kelley (1967) advanced Heider's theory by adding hypotheses
about factors that affect the formation of attributions: consistency, distinctiveness,
HRM. Appraisals, Self-Appraisals, Peer-Appraisals, etc.
Marketing Communication. Applied to advertising, attribution theory
argues that consumers can attribute claims either to the advertiser's desire
to sell the product (one-sided advertising) or to actual attributes of the
product communicated by an honest advertiser (two-sided advertising). This
theory suggests that two sided messages including negative information of
the product may lead the audience to think that the advertiser is telling
the truth. This enhanced perception of advertiser credibility strengthens
beliefs concerning the positive attributes that the advertiser claims are
associated with the product.
Steps in the Attribution Theory. Process
There is a three-stage process underlying attribution:
Perception. Observe. The person must perceive or observe the
Judgment. Determine deliberateness. The person must believe that
the behavior was intentionally performed.
Attribute. The person must determine if he believes the other
person was forced to perform the behavior (in which case the cause is attributed
to the situation) or not (in which case the cause is attributed to the other
Book: Fritz Heider
- The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations
Forum discussions about Attribution. Below you can ask a question about this topic, share your experiences, report a new development, or explain something.
Managing the Imposter Syndrome at the Workplace
Imagine yourself as an individual responsible to prepare a befitting presentation for an important client meet. This task is not at all unfamiliar to you, and since you have prepared several presentat...
Disadvantages of Attribution Theory. Pitfalls
It's important to understand that attribution theory takes away from us the responsibility of owning up to our decisions. It distracts the attention from our own responsibility or that of our leaders/...
What is Perception Management?
Actors (members) in an organisation behave in such a way, in order to influence the public’s perceptions about themselves.
According to Erving Goffman, he/she will try to uphold a certain (self-) ima...
People are not disturbed by things, but by the view they take of them.
Epictetus AD 55-135, Greek Stoic philosopher
A man who views the world the same at fifty as he did at twenty has wasted thirt...
Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory
Ployart and Harold proposed a new theory called the Applicant Attribution-Reaction Theory (AART) by combining both theories from applicants reactions literature and of attribution theories. AART stat...
Overconfidence, hubris, self-attribution, frequent acquirer, mergers and acquisitions Paper by Matthew T. BIlett and Yiming Qian explores the source of hubris in mergers and acquisitions by examining the hi...
Persuasion Techniques, Managing Behavior, Cognitive Bias, Bounded Rationality, Resistance to Change An extensive presentation about persuasion including many types and examples of persuasion experiements. The following s...