What is the Hagberg Model of Personal Power? Description
Janet O. Hagberg defines Personal Power as the combination of external
power (capacity to ACT) with internal power (capacity to REFLECT). Her Personal
Power model distinguishes the following six stages of personal power and
leadership in organizations:
||Needs from manager:
||Power is primarily sought and obtained
from outside the person, from titles, positions, or other symbols or
||Secure and dependent, low in self-esteem,
uninformed, helpless but not hopeless
|2. Power by Association
||Apprentice, learning the culture, dependent
on supervisor / leader, new self-awareness
||Sticking to the rules
||Maneuvering, catching up
||Safety, freedom to explore
|3. Power by Achievement
||Mature ego, realistic and competitive,
||Visible signs of success
||Feedback, challenge, questions
||Power is primarily sought and obtained
from the inner journey of the person
|4. Power by Reflection
||Reflective / confused, competent in collaboration,
strong, comfortable with personal style, skilled at mentoring, showing
||Modeling integrity, generating
||Moving beyond your intellect, letting
go of control, embracing your shadow, going to your core, finding intimacy
with your higher power, glimpsing wisdom
|5. Power by Purpose
||Self-accepting, courageous, calm, conscience
of the organization, humble, practical mystics, elusive qualities, generous
in overpowering others, confident of life calling
||Empowering others, service to
||Acting as catalyst
||Living their calling
|6. Power by Wisdom
||Integrating shadow, unafraid of death,
powerless, quiet in service, conscience in the community / world, compassion
for the world
||Wisdom, a way of being
Origin of the Hagberg Model of Personal Power. History
The personal power model was developed originally as a culmination of coursework
of Hagberg towards her PhD in adult development at the University of Minnesota,
many years of business and professional experience, and personal interviews
with and feedback from hundreds of people in organizations.
Usage of the Hagberg Model of Personal Power. Applications
- Managers should learn how to read employees and choose, in addition
to the most comfortable managing style (for themselves), an appropriate
management style for each employee. Compare:
- Basically, leaders at each of the stages develop followers who are
or want to be like them. Compare:
- The position or status of the person is no guarantee of true leadership.
The quality of the person is what determines true leadership.
- According to Hagberg, to be a true leader requires that the person
has experienced a crisis of integrity and reached Stage 4 or higher. However,
such people often do not pursue positions of power for their own sake
and may even shy away from them.
Limitation of the Hagberg Model of Personal Power. Disadvantage
- The world surrounding Stage 4-6 people is run from much narrower Stage
1-3 visions, and can rarely appreciate or truly encourage the emergence
of higher levels of leadership.
Assumptions of the Hagberg Model of Personal Power. Conditions
Hagberg mentions the following assumptions:
- The stages of personal power are arranged in a developmental order.
- Each stage is different from all the others.
- People can be in different stages of power in different areas of their
lives, at different times, and with different people. However each of us
has a home stage which typically represents us.
- One can move through the home stages only in the order from one to six.
- Power is described and manifested differently at each stage.
- Each stage has positive and negative dimensions as well as developmental
struggles within it.
- Women are more likely to identify with certain stages and men with other
- You do not necessarily proceed to new stages merely with age or experience,
although both are factors.
- The most externally- and organizationally-oriented power stages (1-3)
show a marked contrast to the internally-oriented power stages (4-6).
- The development of the ego and then the release of the ego are central
tasks inherent within this model. Cultural rituals are necessary in order
to do that successfully.
- The stages primarily describe the development of individuals who live
and work in the USA in the first half of the twenty-first century. Compare:
Book: Janet O. Hagberg - Real Power - Stages of Personal Power
in Organizations -
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Compare with the Hagberg Model of Personal Power:
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