Leadership Styles[领导风格]
(Goleman)

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总结

2002年,Daniel Goleman在与Richard Boyatzis、Annie McKee共同撰写的畅销书《最根本的领导力》(Primal Leadership)中,提出了六种领导风格。 要准确理解这六种领导风格,需要首先理解Goleman提出的人际沟通/交流的“共鸣”概念。


领导产生共鸣

根据Goleman的研究,优秀领导之所以高效,是因为他们能够产生共鸣。


英文中的共鸣(Resonance)一词来源于拉丁语Resonare 意为“再次产生声音”。 有效领导被调和到其他人的感觉并且移动他们在一个正面情感方向。 他首先调整自己的价值观、做事的优先顺序、判断的标准和工作目标,并切实根据这些因素来领导团队,从而引起团队其他成员的情感共鸣。 在他的领导下,团队成员会感到相互之间非常惬意。 共鸣来源于人天生的Emotional Intelligence[情感智能] (包括自我认知、自已管理、社会认知和关系管理),同时也介入了一定的智力成分。


共鸣的产生可以通过六种方式来实现,这就是六种不同的领导风格。 对于那些高效领导来说,他们能够从容驾驭这六种领导风格,根据不同的形势需要,进行运用、变换。


 

远见型领导

教练型领导

合作型领导

民主型领导

领头型领导

命令型领导

领导特征

启发、激励。 满怀信心,整合共同愿景。 移情作用。 让每一位成员知道个人努力对实现组织“梦想”的贡献和作用。 善于聆听。 帮助组织成员辨识其长处和短处。 发挥顾问作用。 对组织成员给与鼓励。 正确授权和分工。 营造组织中和谐、 友好的氛围。 移情作用。 促进道德建设。 解决冲突。 聆听的大师。 团队工作者。 合作者。 施加影响者。 目标实现的强大推动力。 自我的高标准。 很强的主动性。 较低的移情作用与合作精神。 缺乏耐心。 事无巨细都要管理过问。 过分看中数字结果。 发号司令。 “按我说的去做。” 威胁。 严格控制。 严厉监督。 产生不和谐。 组织成员的情绪深受其害。 天才的创造性被驱逐。

如何产生共鸣

推动组织成员朝向共同的“梦想”努力。 将成员个人需要与 组织目标联系起来。 通过成员之间的联系沟通,产生组织和谐。 欣赏组织成员的个人贡献,通过组织成员的积极参与,来实现组织目标。 实现富有挑战性的、激动人心的组织目标。 遇有紧急情况,能够给以明确的方向指引,从而减轻员工的忧虑。

领导风格对企业的影响

+ + + + + + + 经常  --   当滥用或不当运用的时候 经常  --

最佳运用时机

当变革需要新的组织愿景时, 或者当组织需要一个清晰明确的前进方向时。 当组织遭遇剧烈变革的时候。 当那些易受激励的员工需要通过帮助建立一种持久的能力、从而不断提高他们的工作表现时。 当组织裂痕需要风何时。 当组织经历紧张困难时期、需要有效激励时。 或者,当组织需要加强沟通联系时。 当组织需要构建共识、或需要支持时。 或者,需要大量的员工参与、贡献时。 当需要有一支能征善战、接受激励的团队高质量地完成任务时。 如销售团队。 当组织遭遇严重危机时。 或者当组织遇到制造麻烦的员工时。 当开始一项急迫的组织行动时。 传统上的军事领导。

参考书: Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, Annie McKee - Primal Leadership


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比较:  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Result Oriented Management[业绩导向管理]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Coaching[教练]  |  Mentoring[启导]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]


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