Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]
(Goleman)

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总结

情感智能的起源

当心理学家开始研究人的智商的时候,他们主要关注的是人的认知能力,如记忆力和解决问题的能力。 然而,有一些研究人员很早就意识到非认知能力的重要性:

  • Robert Thorndike早在1937就撰文阐述社会智能,

  • David Wechsler将智力定义为在一定环境下的自觉的行为、理性的思考、高效的行动的能力的总和(Wechsler,1958, p. 7)。 其实,早在1940年,Wechsler就已经提到了非智力因素(Wechsler 1940),即情感的、人际的以及社会的因素。 此外,1943年Wechsler又提出非智力因素对一个人的成功非常重要。

  • Howard Gardner从1983年开始研究多元智能(Multiple Intelligence), 他认为自我认识智能和人际关系智能与传统的通过IQ及相关测试来衡量的智能同样重要。

  • Salovey和Mayer在1990年,正式提出了情感智能(Emotional Intelligence,EI)和情商(Emotional QuotientEQ)的概念。 他们将EI定义为一种社会智能,它包括监督自己和他人情绪的能力、区分自己和他人情绪的能力,以及运用情绪信息去指导思维和行动的能力(Salovey & Mayer 1990)。 Salovey和Mayer还着手研究EI的测量方法,以深入探索其重要性。

1990年代初期,Daniel Goleman在他的第一部研究著作撰写过程中,就接触到了Salovey和Mayers的研究工作, 随后,在他的那本脍炙人口的《情感智能》(Emotional Intelligence)一书中,他首次为情感智能和社会智能的重要性提出了切实的证据。Daniel Goleman曾在哈佛接受心理学训练,并与著名的心理学家David McClelland在一起工作过。


情感智能的五个功能范畴

在1995年的时候,Goleman同意Salovey提出的EI的五个功能范畴(p. 43)。

  • 了解自我。 内省、辨识自己的情绪。

  • 管理自我。 把握自己情绪的能力。

  • 自我激励。 将情绪体验运用于目标追求。

  • 识别他人情绪。 同情心与社会意识。

  • 处理人际关系。 管理自己情绪的技巧。

情感智能的四个功能范畴

后来,Goleman更倾向于四个功能范畴的提法。 这四个功能范畴包括19个类别,Goleman在他的《打造新领导人》(Primal Leadership)一书中对19个类别一一做了描述, 后来海氏公司(Hay Group)在此基础上又添加了两个类别:

  • 自我意识(情绪自我觉察、 准确自我评估、自信)

  • 自我管理(情绪自我调控、 透明度/可信度、 适应性、 成就导向性、 主动性、 乐观性、 严谨性)

  • 社会意识(同理心、 组织意识、 服务导向性)

  • 关系管理(感召式领导力、 影响力、 发展他人、 变革触媒、 冲突管理、 建立联结、 团队与合作、 沟通)

这里需要强调的是,根据Goleman,所有上述提到的这些EI都不是天生的, 而是通过后天学习培育而成。


IQ 挑战 EI

根据一些科学家的研究,IQ[智商]作为工作绩效的预测器,效果并不理想。 Hunter和Hunter(1984)估计,对于一个人的绩效表现,IQ的贡献份额至多只能占到25%, sternberg(1996)更指出,据他的研究,10%的比例可能更为准确。 在另一些研究中,IQ的贡献份额更是少得可怜,只占4%左右。 在Van Rooy和Viswesvaran于2004年所做的一项整合研究中,他们通过将EIIQ进行对比,来检验EI与绩效表现的关联性以及预测有效性,最终他们发现在一般工作及学术成绩方面,IQ较之EI是一个更好的预测指标。 然而,当考察一个人能否成为其职位上的“明星”的时候(绩效表现在其所属组织中排在前10%),或者当考察一个人能否成为杰出领导者的时候,比起EI来,IQ就显得不是那么强有力了。


IQEI 纯粹类型

Goleman认为,不应该将IQEI视作互为对立的竞争体, 它们各有其用武之地。 尽管可以简单地将人归类以高IQ、低EI,或者高EI、低IQ,但这些情形毕竟相对少见。IQEI之间存有一定的关联性。 以下是几个典型(纯粹类型):

  • (纯粹的)高智商男性。 这种人无疑非常典型,他聪明能干、 雄心勃勃、工作富有成效。 他富有预见性,并执著于既定目标。 他无忧无虑,能够控制自己的烦恼。 他还兼具批评议论与谦逊俯就的特点、 吹毛求疵与羞涩内向的特点。 他对性感到不自在、兴趣不足。 他表现力差、往往疏离于他人, 他的情感异常冷淡。

  • (纯粹的)高情商男性。 他是典型的社会型人士, 外向,愉悦, 不会担惊受怕、杞人忧天、闷闷不乐。 他有非常强烈的事业心、责任感,并具有道德观念。 他富有同情心,注意人际关系。 他的情感生活丰富多彩,但有节有度。 他善待自己、他人以及他周遭的社会世界。

  • (纯粹的)高智商女性。 她对于自己的智商很有信心, 她能够流利表达自己的思想观点。 她看重智力因素, 具有广泛的智力及审美情趣。 她趋向于内省, 经常忧虑、内疚、沉思, 不善公开表达自己的愤怒。

  • (纯粹的)高情商女性。 她是那种过于自信、敞开情感的人, 对自己总是采取一种积极的认识态度, 生活对她而言,充满了趣味。 她是外向型、社交型的人士, 能够适当地表达自己的情感。 她善于调节压力。 她的处世态度使她很容易结交陌生人。 她非常善待自己,享乐生活、不受约束,对于性比较开放。 她很少有负罪感,或深思自省。

评估和测量EI

测量EI的工具有:

  • EQ-I模块(Bar-On,1997): 一种EI的自我测量和评估工具,且能帮助测试人训练培养高人一筹的情商

  • 多元情商标尺(Mayer、Caruso、Salovey, 1998) :   一种能力测试,通过当事人执行一系列的预设任务来评估其情商,这些任务与感知情绪、辨别情绪、理解情绪、把握情绪的能力密切相关。

  • 情绪能力问卷(Goleman 1998):   一种360度全方位情商评估方法,用以对组织成员进行情商评估,它不仅向当事人,而且向他的上司、下属和同事来了解情况,从而评估其情商(形式是个人反馈报告)。 ECI的另一种形式是以集体为单位进行情商评估(形式是内部稽核)。 评估对象是组织内部任何层次规模的集体,内部稽核的结果是给出这些集体的组织轮廓和特征。 ECI将从上面提到的19个(或21个)情商类别入手,进行情商评估。

参考书: Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence [中译本《EQ:情感智商》,上海科学技术出版社,1997]


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比较: Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]  |  Attribution Theory[归因理论]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Framing[心理定格]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work[关系工作的四个类型]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  Six Change Approaches[六变革法]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  PAEI[PAEI管理角色]  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]  |  Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]


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