Grundval för Makt och Inflytande

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Sammanfattning

Grundval för makt och inflytandeProcesserna kring inflytande och makt är genomträngande, komplexa, och ofta maskerade i vårt samhälle. Bases of Social Power av French and Raven är en teori som identifierar de fem (sex) grunder eller källor till socialt (organisatoriskt) inflytande och makt:

  1. Belöningsmakt. Denna form baseras på den uppfattade möjligheten att få positiva följder eller att ta bort de negativa.

  2. Tvingande makt. Detta är den uppfattade möjligheten att tvinga eller straffa de som inte inordnar sig med dina idéer eller krav.

  3. Legitimerad makt (organisatorisk fullmakt). Denna form baseras på uppfattningen att någon har rätten/befogenheterna att föreskriva beteendekriterier vid val eller utnämning till en anvsarsroll. Även kallad Normativ makt. Jämför: Organisationskarta.

  4. Referensmakt. Detta är makt genom att andra associerar sig med den som innehar makten.

  5. Kunskaps makt. Denna typ baseras på att ha särskiljande kunskap, expertis, kapacitet eller kunskaper.

  6. Som i 5 ovan: Informationsmakt. Denna form är baserad på att kontrollera informationen som efterfrågas av andra för att nå ett viktigt mål.

Teorin kring de sociala maktbaserna (Bases of Social Power) utgår från antagandet att makt och inflytande gäller förbindelser mellan åtminstone två parter. Teorin förordar att reaktionen hos den mottagande parten är ett mer användbart fokus som förklaring av fenomenet av socialt inflytande och makt.


French and Raven undersökte effekten av makt som kunde härledas från de olika baserna av dragning och motstånd till bruket av makt. Lockelsen och motståndet är mottagarens känsla för den som använder medlet makt. De gör slutsatsen att bruket av makt i de olika maktbaserna har olika följder.

Till exempel den Tvingande makten minskar typiskt attraktionen och orsakar ett stort motstånd. Medans däremot Belöningsmakt förhöjer attraktionen och, skapar minimala nivåer av motstånd.


French and Raven gjorde också den slutsatsen att, "ju mer legitimt tvånget [uppfattades att vara], ju mindre kommer den att förorsaka motstånd och minskad uppmärksamhet".


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Forum

Forum om Baser av Social Makt.


 

A 7th Source of Power: Participative Power
Achieve participative power by having:
- Common goals
- Clear vision
- Constant communication
- Everyone is involved
- Consensus (for important decisions)....
14
 
2 kommentarer
Composition of Power Bases
I think several power bases can be required in one individual, and suggest to focus on the composition of all power bases in making an all round powerful person/leader, e.g. expert power 40%, reward p...
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4 kommentarer
How Leaders Influence Others? 6 Principles of Influence
Influence refers to the power of an individual to impel another person to action by either intangible or indirect means. Therefore it plays an important role in leadership. Kaufman (2011) develo...
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With Power Comes Responsibility!
With real power comes responsibility. You need to exercise it with an objective in mind. Power without responsibility will make you answerable one day!...
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1 kommentarer
Is Charisma a Source of Social Power?
What about personal power or call it charismatic power? Certain people can be powerful through their charisma, energy, stamina, strength or verbal skills on top of the mentioned sources of power....
10
 
2 kommentarer
Synergistic Power is the Strongest
All power is secondary to synergistic power.
The mathematics of synergistic power is this: 1 + 1 = 11!
There is a proverb that states: 'Plans fail for lack of counsel, but with many advisers...
10
 
Should See Power Differently...
The word "power" acts as deterrent for most of the employees to perform and leaves a negative and rebellious feeling in them. Power should be seen as a facilitating tool to influence people. And as a ...
10
 
About Information Power
I personally believe that information power is the most influential form of power. All other powers especially legitimate power needs to feed off of information or even expert power in order to sustai...
10
 
1 kommentarer
What is Power? Definitions
French and Raven detail varieties of social power, but what is 'power', is it Foucault's action that requires two consenting parties - where there is the possibility of an individual decision and pers...
8
 
2 kommentarer
Mind Power - Power of Mind
Every one has power of mind, of which only around 17% is active. We need to activate the unconscious mind power to energize. Ince we succeed to utilize our mind power we will become a great performer....
7
 
Social Power is Determined by the (Perception of the) Receiver
Note that the perception of the receiving agent on how effective power can be used goes a long way in defining the social relationship....
4
 
Bases of Social Power: What's Common?
What do these Bases of Social Power have in common?...
3
 
1 kommentarer
Desire to Have Power...
Why do people desire social power?...
1
 
2 kommentarer
Framing or Meaning Power
An additional source of power in organizations can be to establish the framework within which issues will be viewed and decided (J. Pfeffer - Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizatio...
0
 
2 kommentarer

Best Practices

De bästa, högst rankade ämnena om Baser av Social Makt. Här hittar du de mest värdefulla idéerna och praktiska förslagen.


Assumed Power in a Void
Another type of power is that which is created in a void (Ed: ~ empty space) of leadership, that is assumed power. No one is exerting power in an area, so someone assumes that role, and the power is b...
29
 
23 kommentarer

2 more Types of Power
There are two other types of power. One is derived from dependency relationship. Any dependency for anything else makes one powerful over the dependents. This may be called "Dependency Power". The oth...
7
 
7 kommentarer

What is Referent Power? Definition and Examples
The definition for “referent power” in the summary of the basis of social power is not 100% clear when it says: "referent power is power through association with others who possess power". That could ...
7
 
3 kommentarer

Experttips

Avancerad insikt om Bases of Social Power (Engelsk). Här hittar du professionella råd från experter.


Bases of Social Power in the Context of Change Initiatives

Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context of change initiatives. The sour...

What precisely was Legitimate Power according to French and Raven? Definition

Precise Definition by French and Raven
While I appreciate and aknowledge that the definition of legitimate power, posed in this section, represents the current...

Mobilize the Expert Power in your Team Early On

Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or dec...

Seventh Source of Social Power (French & Raven)

Leadership, Management, Change Management
In addition to the above mentioned bases or sources of social (organizational) power, French and Raven also distinguishe...

Positional and Personal Bases of Power

Leadership
In “The Power Theory of Leadership”, Hayden analyses the bases of social power (excluding connectional power) and reiter...

The Relationship between the Power of Leaders and Overconfidence

Leadership, Power, Leadership Development, Executive Education
Fast et al. (2012) researched the relationship between power and overconfidence. In many cases it can be seen that decis...
Informationskällor

Olika informationskällor om Baser av Social Makt. Här hittar du powerpoints, videor, nyheter etc. som du kan använda i dina egna föreläsningar och workshops.


Power and Politics in Organizations

Power Relations, Bases of Power, Political Behavior, Politics, Political Tactics, Organizational Politics
This presentation covers the topic of politics in organization, especially focusing on power issues. The presentation in...

The Fatal Coaching Mistake by Managers

Coaching, Mentoring, Management, Leadership
Managers and executives often don't realize how much influence they have over their staff, by just being their superior...

Ineffective Leadership and Unethical Leadership

Leadership Types, Management, Ethics
Presentation about Bad or Unethical Leadership that includes the following sections: 1. Webs of Significance 2. The We...

Group Influences and Opinion Leadership

Groupthink, Group Dynamics, Word of Mouth Marketing, Sales, Opinion Leadership, Convincing People, Persuation
Presentation about Group Influences, including various related concepts such as the Social Comparison Theory and Word-of...

Power Tactics

Tactics to become powerful in organizations
6 common ways to become powerul in organizations. By Renuka Kuchipudi....

Supervisory Power

International Differences
Study by M. Afzalur Rahim tested a structural equations model of the French and Raven bases of supervisory power (coerci...

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