14 Principles of Management[14项管理原则]
(Henri法约尔)

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总结

Henri法约尔(1841-1925) - 14 Principles of Management[14项管理原则]

14项管理原则是什么? 释义

法国古典管理理论学家Henri Fayol总结的14项管理原则为:

  1. 工作分工(Division of Work。 专业化允许个人积累经验,持续不断地提高技能, 从而更富有生产力。
  2. 权威与责任(Authority and Responsibilities。 发布命令的权力,必须与相应的责任相匹配。
  3. 纪律(Discipline。 员工必须遵守纪律,但这一点具有两面性: 只有当管理者自身具有高超的领导力、恪尽职守,员工才会遵守纪律。
  4. 统一指挥(Unity of Command。 每个员工都只能有一个上级,以确保他所执行的命令不会相互冲突。
  5. 统一方向(Unity of Direction。 在一项单独的行动计划中,每一名参与者的目标都必须相同。 这一点对于组织的团结和协调非常重要。 尽管统一的方向不一定产生统一的指挥,但是如果没有统一的方向,就决不可能有统一的指挥。
  6. 个体利益服从整体利益(Subordination of Individual Interest to the General Interest)。 管理者必须意识到企业目标永远是至高无上的。
  7. 人事报酬(Remuneration。 尽管通过分析各种可能性,Fayol 指出没有一个完美的组织系统,他还是认为人事报酬是这个系统中的一个非常重要的促进因素。
  8. 中心化或去中心化(Centralization or Decentralization)。 这里有一个度的问题,取决于企业的环境条件和人员条件。
  9. 层次链/权威线(Scalar Chain/Line of Authority。 为了方向统一,一定的层级是需要的。 但是横向联系也是组织沟通的基本方式。 层次链指的是从高层权威到基层人员的组织层级, 它不应该过长,不能包含过多层级。
  10. 秩序(Order。 对于组织管理来说,物质秩序和社会秩序都是必要的, 物质秩序使得损失和浪费最小化, 而社会秩序则来源于组织与选举。
  11. 平等(Equity。 对于企业经营者来说,必须做到“友好和公正”的完美组合, 善待员工对实现平等非常重要。
  12. 人员任期稳定性(Stability of Tenure of Personnel。 在工作职位稳定和职业前景看好的情况下,员工的工作绩效会更好。 人员的不当任用以及离职率过高对企业都会有负面影响。
  13. 主动性(Initiative。 通过一些适当的方式调动全体人员的主动性,是一个增强组织实力的有效方法。 这一点做得好,也许会让一些管理人员感到“空虚”。
  14. Esprit de Corps(团队精神)。 管理人员必须不断鼓舞雇员士气。 Fayol建议: “真正优秀的团队需要协调努力、互相鼓励、调用每个人的聪明才智、,并不偏不倚地对每个人的优点给以回报”。

什么是管理? 五个要素

Fayol对管理角色及相关行动的定义包含了以下五个要素:

  1. 预见(Prevoyance)。 (预测与规划)。 审视未来,制定行动方案。 此为战略要素。
  2. 组织(To organize。 从物质和人员两个方面建设组织架构。
  3. 命令(To command。 维持人员间的活动。
  4. 协调(To coordinate。 统一并协调所有行为、活动。
  5. 控制(To control。 发生的任何行为活动必须于既定的制度、命令相适。

14项管理原则的起源。 历史

Henri Fayol(1841-1925)是法国古典管理理论学家,他的劳动力管理和组织理论在20世纪初期有着广泛的社会影响。 最初,Fayol是法国采矿公司Commenry-Fourchamboult-Decazeville采矿工程师。 随后走上管理岗位,1888年至1918年间,他担任公司的总经理。 在他任职总经理期间,他写了大量的管理文章,1916年,《Bulletin de la Société de l’ Industrie Minérale》发表了他的代表作《工业管理和一般管理》(Administration, Industrielle et Générale - Prévoyance, Organisation, Commandement, Coordination, Contrôle)。 该书的英文版直到1949年才问世,  翻译者是Constance


14项管理原则的运用。 应用

  • 变革与组织。
  • 决策。
  • 技能培训。 管理效力提高。
  • 有助于理解管理包含着一系列不同的活动,这些活动是可以罗列和分类的。

参考书: Henri Fayol - General and Industrial Management


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比较: POSDCORB  |  Organization Chart[组织结构图]  |  Fourteen Points of Management[质量管理14要点] (Deming)  |  Ten Schools of Thought[战略思想十大流派]  |  Training Within Industry[业内训练]  |  Eight Attributes of Management Excellence[卓越管理的八个属性]  |  Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]


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