14가지 경영관리 원칙[14 Principles of Management]
(Henri Fayol)

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요약

Henri Fayol (1841-1925년) - 14 Principles of Management [관리의 14원칙]

경영관리를 위한 14가지 원칙이란 무엇인가?

Henri Fayol(1841-1925년)의 14가지 경영관리원칙은 다음과 같다:

  1. 분업의 원칙(Division of Work). 전문화는 개인이 경험을 쌓고 지속적으로 기술(skills)을 향상시킬 수 있도록 해준다. 이를 통해 개인의 생산성은 높아지게 된다.
  2. 권한과 책임의 원칙(Authority). 각 담당 업무에 대한 책임과 그에 따른 권한의 규형.
  3. 기강확립(규율)의 원칙(Discipline). 직원들이 명령에 따라야만 한다는 것이지만, 이 원칙에는 2가지 측면의 의미가 있다: 만일 경영진이 좋은 리더십을 발휘하며 자신의 역할을 수행한다면, 직원들은 그들의 지휘를 따를 것이다.
  4. 명령 일원화의 원칙(Unity of Command). 각 근로자는 한 명의 상관으로부터만 명령을 받아야만 한다는 것이다. 이는 명령체계에 혼란을 발생시키지 않기 위해서 이다.
  5. 지휘통일의 원칙(Unity of Direction). 동일한 활동에 관여하고 있는 사람들은 하나의 계획 하에서 동일한 목적을 지향해야 한다. 이는 기업 내에서 통일성과 조정력을 위한 필수 조건이다. 명령의 일원화는 지휘 통일성을 통해 존재하나 반드시 지휘 통일성으로부터 기인하는 것은 아니다.
  6. 개별이익의 전체이익에의 종속원칙(Subordination of individual interest). 경영진은 기업의 목표를 항상 최우선으로 해야한다.
  7. 적정보상의 원칙(Remuneration). Fayol은 많은 가능성들에 대한 분석을 통하여 완벽한 시스템은 존재하지 않는다고 하였지만, 임금은 중요한 동기부여 요인이다.
  8. 중앙집권화의 원칙(Centralization) 또는 분권화(Decentralization). 이것은 직원 개인의 질적인 측면과 사업 조건이 관련된 정도의 문제이다.
  9. 계층화 혹은 계층조직의 원칙(Scalar chain). 위계구조는 지휘 통일성을 위하여 필요하다. 수평적 의사소통은(lateral communication) 기본지만, 상관은 그러한 의사소통이 일어나고 있다는 것을 알고 있어야 한다. 계층조직은 조직 내 최상위 권한자로부터 최하위자까지의 위계구조를 구성하고 있는 단계의 수와 관련되어 있다. 계층조직은 감당할 수 없을만큼 많은 단계로 구성되어서는 안된다.
  10. 질서유지의 원칙(Order). 물질적 질서와 사회적 질서, 두 가지 측면이 모두 필요하다. 물질적 질서는 시간낭비와 불필요한 (처리)활동을 최소화시켜준다. 사회적 질서는 조직화와 선발(정)을 통해 달성된다.
  11. 공정성의 원칙(Equity). 사업을 운영함에는 친절함과 공평성의 조화가 필요하다. 종업원에 대한 좋은 대우는 공정성을 달성하는데 중요하다.
  12. 고용안정의 원칙(Stability of Tenure of Personnel.). 종업원은 직업의 안정성과 경력발전이 보장되는 경우에 보다 좋은 성과를 낸다. 불안정한 재직과 높은 이직율은 조직에 부정적인 영향을 미친다.
  13. 자발성의 원칙(Initiative). 모든 직원들이 스스로 자발성을 발휘하도록 한다는 것은 조직을 강하게 하는 하나의 방법이다. 그러나 한편으로는 많은 관리자들 중 일부에게는 개인적인 희생이 따를 수 있다.
  14. 종업원 단결의 원칙(Esprit de Corps). 경영진은 직원들의 사기를 진작시켜야 한다. Fayol은 이와 관련하여 다음과 같이 제안을 하였다: "조직활동들을 조율하고 열정을 독려하며, 각 개인의 역량 활용하며, 그리고 질투심을 유발하지 않고 조화로운 관계를 해치지 않는 범위 내에서 개인의 가치에 보상해주는 것이 필요하다"

관관리리의 5가지 기능(Fayol)

"관리" 활동의 일부로 관리자(오늘날 우리는 관리자라고 함) Fayol은 다섯 가지 기능을 구분합니다:

  1. Prevoyance (예측 및 계획). 미래를 살펴보고 행동계획을 작성하는 것. 전략의 구성요소
  2. 조직(To organize). 인적, 물적 측면 모두에서의 구조화.
  3. 명령(To command). 직원 상호간의 활동에 대한 유지관리.
  4. 조정(To coordinate). 모든 행동과 활동을 결집시키고 통합하며 조화를 이루게 하는 것.
  5. 통제(To control). 모든 것이 수립된 규칙과 전달된 명령에 따라 수행되고 있는지를 확인하는 것.

경영관리의 14원칙의 유래.

Henri Fayol(1841-1925년)은 프랑스의 경영이론가로서 경영과 노동조직에 관한 그의 이론들은 20세기 전반에 광범위하게 영향을 미쳤다. 프랑스 광산회사, Commentry-Fourchamboult-Decazeville의 엔지니어였다. 그 후 그는 경영부서로 자리를 옮겨 1888년부터 1918년까지 이사로 재직하였다. 그는 이사로 재직하는 기간동안 (경영)관리에 관한 많은 논문을 썼고, 1916년에 the Bulletin de la Société de l’ Industrie Minérale은 그의 'Administration, Industrielle et Générale - Prévoyance, Organisation, Commandement, Coordination, Contrôle'을 발간하였다. 1949년에 Constance Storrs에 의해 처음으로 영어로 번역되었다:   ‘General and Industrial Management’


경영관리 14원칙의 활용. 응용

  • 변화와 조직.
  • 의사결정.
  • 기술/역량. 매니저의 기본적인 효과 개선에의 활용
  • 경영관리가 목록화하고 그룹화되어질 수 있는 다양한 활동들의 일환으로 보여질 수 있다는 측면에 대한 이해

참고도서: Henri Fayol - General and Industrial Management


시그(SIG)

관리의 14원칙 시그(SIG).



시그(SIG) (504 개 회원)

포럼 토론

관리의 14원칙 포럼.


 

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모범 사례

관리의 14원칙에 대한 최고 평점 토론 주제. 여기에서 가장 가치있는 아이디어와 실용적인 제안을 찾을 수 있습니다.


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전문가 팁

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정보 출처

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추가 연구 링크

관리의 14원칙다음과 관련된 다른 유용한 소스로 자동으로 이동합니다 .


뉴스

뉴스

영화

영화

프리젠 테이션

프리젠 테이션

서적

서적

플라톤 학파 사람들

플라톤 학파 사람들

더


관리의 14원칙 관련개념: POSDCORB  |  조직도  |  Fourteen Points of Management [품질경영을 위한 14가지 지침] (데밍)  |  Ten Schools of Thought [10대 전략경영사상]  |  Training Within Industry [TWI, 산업내훈련]  |  8 Attributes of Management Excellence [경영 우수성의 속성]


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  의사소통과 기법들  |  의사결정과 가치평가  |  인적 자원


관리 방법, 모형 및 이론

시그(SIG)

관리의 14원칙 관심이 있습니까? 우리 SIG 리더가 되십시오

 


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