Economic Value Added
(EVA)

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Summary

What is EVA? Definition

Economic Value Added (EVA) is a financial performance method to calculate the true economic profit of a corporation. EVA can be calculated as Net Operating Profit After Tax minus a charge for the opportunity cost of the capital invested.


EVA ( © / ™ Stern Stewart & Co.) is an estimate of the amount that earnings differ from the required minimum rate of return (against comparable risk) for shareholders or lenders. The difference can be both a surplus or a shortage.


EVA compared with MVA

Unlike Market-based measurements, such as MVA, EVA can be calculated for a divisional (Strategic Business Unit) level.

Unlike Equities measurements, EVA is a flow and can be used for performance evaluation over time.


EVA compared with EBIT and EPS

Unlike accounting profit, such as EBIT, Net Income and EPS, EVA is economic and is based on the idea that a company must cover both the operating costs AND the capital costs.


Calculation of EVA. Formula

The basic formula for calculating EVA is:


      Net Sales

-     Operating Expenses

------------------------------------------------------

      Operating Profit (EBIT)

-     Taxes

------------------------------------------------------

      Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT)

-     Capital Charges (Invested Capital x Cost of Capital)

------------------------------------------------------

      Economic Value Added (EVA)


By taking all capital costs into account, including the cost of equity, EVA shows the financial amount of wealth a business has created or destroyed in a reporting period. In other words, EVA is profit in the way that shareholders define it. If the shareholders expect, say, a 10% return on their investment, they earn money only to the extent that their share of the NOPAT exceeds 10% of equity capital. Everything before that just builds up to the minimum acceptable compensation for investing in a risky enterprise.


USAGE of the EVA method: Aligning decisions with shareholder wealth

EVA was developed to help managers to incorporate two basic principles of finance into their decision making:

  1. The primary financial objective of any company should be to maximize the wealth of its shareholders.
  2. The value of a company depends on the extent to which investors expect that future profits will differ from the cost of capital. By definition, a sustained increase in EVA will result in an increase in the market value of a company. This approach has proved valid and effective for many types of organizations. This is because the level of EVA isn't what really matters. Current performance already is reflected in share prices. It is the (continuous) improvement in EVA that brings (continuous) increases in shareholder wealth.

Some specific usages of EVA include:

  • To set organizational goals.
  • Performance measurement.
  • Determining of bonuses.
  • Communication with shareholders and investors.
  • Motivation of managers.
  • Capital budgeting.
  • Corporate valuation.
  • Analyzing equities.

Book: S. David Young, Stephen F. O'Byrne - EVA and Value-Based Management.. -

Book: Aswath Damodaran - Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining.. -

Book: James R. Hitchner - Financial Valuation: Applications and Models -


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EVA for Corporate Incentives
Is EVA a good metric to determine incentive compensation awards at the corporate level? Why? (...)
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What is the Impact of Debt on EVA?
What is the impact debt is having on EVA? Thanks for your help. (...)
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EVA & Amortization of R&D
The amortization of R&D on straight line basis does not justify the concept of equal opportunity through out the life of (...)
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🔥 NEW What is EVA Momentum?
EVA Momentum is the change in a business's EVA divided by the prior period's sales (revenue). It was developed by Bennet (...)
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Revised Economic Value Added (REVA)
What is the difference between EVA and Adjusted or Revised Economic Value Added (REVA)? And how can it be calculated? (...)
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EVA Calculation across a Whole Value Chain
I request to all members to help me on how to go about an EVA calculation across the value chain from production down to (...)
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Alternative Methods for Economic Value Added (EVA)
Are there alternative methods for EVA? I am developing a research study, comparing some valuation methods. I am not conc (...)
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EVA applied to consulting services
How can I apply an EVA model to the value added of consulting services on increased revenues. (...)
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Best Practices

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The top-rated topics about Performance Measurement. Here you will find the most valuable ideas and practical suggestions.


EVA growth is what matters
Improving EVA should be the goal of any major firm. After all, shareholders, who are providing the capital for the firm, (...)
25
 
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How to Calculate EVA
Another way to describe how to calculate EVA: Economic Value Added = NOPAT - Capital Charges or Economic Value Added (...)
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Calculating EVA for a Proprietary Company
EVA can be easily calculated when the organisation is Public Limited. But it is difficult to calculate EVA of a propriet (...)
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Expert Tips

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Advanced insights about Performance Measurement. Here you will find professional advices by experts.


Weaknesses of EVA

Value Based Management
Based on their findings from their survey of Fortune 1000 companies, Prakash Deo and Tarun Mukherjee summarized followin (...)

Benefits of EVA

Value Based Management
According to the article “How Fortune 1000 Firms View EVA” by Prakash Deo and Tarun Mukherjee (Corporate Finance Review, (...)

EVA Advantages

EVA Implementation, Corporate Finance
Economic Value Added has improved the corporate finance techniques and nowadays it represents the most modern management (...)

EVA and Market Value

Management Control of Value Drivers.
EVA has been pointed out as the most accurate management system focused on value creation. Unlike MVA, that is strongly (...)

The Accounting Adjustments to EBIT Before Calculating EVA

Value Based Management, Economic Value Added
In order to improve the measurement of Economic Value Added and to eliminate falsifications due to differences in the ap (...)
Information Sources

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Various sources of information regarding Performance Measurement. Here you will find powerpoints, videos, news, etc. to use in your own lectures and workshops.


EVA Adjustments

EVA, Value Based Management
A major consideration in the application of EVA® is the adjustment of a large number of accounting variables ranging fro (...)

Increasing and Measuring Value with EVA

Financial Accounting, Value Based Management, Economic Value Added
Comprehensive presentation about the concept of EVA. The most important points mentioned in this clear presentation whi (...)

EVA and Cash value added do NOT measure shareholder value creation

Measuring Value Creation
Pablo Fernandez analyzed 582 American companies using EVA, MVA, NOPAT and WACC data provided by Stern Stewart. For each (...)

Corporate Valuation for Businesses

Corporate Valuation, Book Value, Market Value, Intrinsic Value, Fundamental Value, M&A, VBM, Fundamental Investing
Presentation that elaborates on corporate valuation, including the following sections: 1. Three types of value: - Book (...)

Optimal Capital Allocation Using RAROC and EVA

EVA, RAROC
Equity capital allocation plays a particularly important role for financial institutions such as banks, who issue equity (...)
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Compare with Economic Value Added: Market Value Added  |  PRVit  |  CFROI  |  Economic Margin  |  CVA  |  EBIT  |  EBITDA  |  Cash Ratio  |  Current Ratio  |  Return on Equity  |  DuPont Model  |  Fair Value  |  TSR  |  Cash Flow from Operations  |  Dividend Payout Ratio  |  Cost-Benefit Analysis  |  Relative Value of Growth  |  PEG Ratio


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