Economic Value Added

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Calculation of the true economic profit of a corporation. Explanation of Economic Value Added. EVA.



What is EVA? Definition

Economic Value Added (EVA) is a financial performance method to calculate the true economic profit of a corporation. EVA can be calculated as Net Operating Profit After Tax minus a charge for the opportunity cost of the capital invested.

EVA ( © / ™ Stern Stewart & Co.) is an estimate of the amount that earnings differ from the required minimum rate of return (against comparable risk) for shareholders or lenders. The difference can be both a surplus or a shortage.

EVA compared with MVA

Unlike Market-based measurements, such as MVA, EVA can be calculated for a divisional (Strategic Business Unit) level.

Unlike Equities measurements, EVA is a flow and can be used for performance evaluation over time.

EVA compared with EBIT and EPS

Unlike accounting profit, such as EBIT, Net Income and EPS, EVA is economic and is based on the idea that a company must cover both the operating costs AND the capital costs.

Calculation of EVA. Formula

The basic formula for calculating EVA is:

      Net Sales

-     Operating Expenses


      Operating Profit (EBIT)

-     Taxes


      Net Operating Profit After Tax (NOPAT)

-     Capital Charges (Invested Capital x Cost of Capital)


      Economic Value Added (EVA)

By taking all capital costs into account, including the cost of equity, EVA shows the financial amount of wealth a business has created or destroyed in a reporting period. In other words, EVA is profit in the way that shareholders define it. If the shareholders expect, say, a 10% return on their investment, they earn money only to the extent that their share of the NOPAT exceeds 10% of equity capital. Everything before that just builds up to the minimum acceptable compensation for investing in a risky enterprise.

USAGE of the EVA method: Aligning decisions with shareholder wealth

EVA was developed to help managers to incorporate two basic principles of finance into their decision making:

  1. The primary financial objective of any company should be to maximize the wealth of its shareholders.
  2. The value of a company depends on the extent to which investors expect that future profits will differ from the cost of capital. By definition, a sustained increase in EVA will result in an increase in the market value of a company. This approach has proved valid and effective for many types of organizations. This is because the level of EVA isn't what really matters. Current performance already is reflected in share prices. It is the (continuous) improvement in EVA that brings (continuous) increases in shareholder wealth.

Some specific usages of EVA include:

  • To set organizational goals.
  • Performance measurement.
  • Determining of bonuses.
  • Communication with shareholders and investors.
  • Motivation of managers.
  • Capital budgeting.
  • Corporate valuation.
  • Analyzing equities.

Book: S. David Young, Stephen F. O'Byrne - EVA and Value-Based Management.. -

Book: Aswath Damodaran - Investment Valuation: Tools and Techniques for Determining.. -

Book: James R. Hitchner - Financial Valuation: Applications and Models -

Economic Value Added Forum
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  Revised Economic Value Added (REVA)
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  EVA for Corporate Incentives
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  How to Calculate EVA
Another way to describe how to calculate EVA:
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  EVA & Amortization of R&D
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  Alternative Methods for Economic Value Added (EVA)
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  EVA growth is what matters
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Weaknesses of EVA

Based on their findings from their survey of Fortu...
Usage (application): Value Based Management

Benefits of EVA

According to the article “How Fortune 1000 Firms V...
Usage (application): Value Based Management

EVA Advantages

Economic Value Added has improved the corporate fi...
Usage (application): EVA Implementation, Corporate Finance

EVA and Market Value

EVA has been pointed out as the most accurate mana...
Usage (application): Management Control of Value Drivers.

The Accounting Adjustments to EBIT Before Calculating EVA

In order to improve the measurement of Economic Va...
Usage (application): Value Based Management, Economic Value Added

Resources - Economic Value Added Premium

EVA Adjustments

A major consideration in the application of EVA® i...
Usage (application): EVA, Value Based Management

Increasing and Measuring Value with EVA

Comprehensive presentation about the concept of EV...
Usage (application): Financial Accounting, Value Based Management, Economic Value Added

EVA and Cash value added do NOT measure shareholder value creation

Pablo Fernandez analyzed 582 American companies us...
Usage (application): Measuring Value Creation

Corporate Valuation for Businesses

Presentation that elaborates on corporate valuatio...
Usage (application): Corporate Valuation, Book Value, Market Value, Intrinsic Value, Fundamental Value, M&A, VBM, Fundamental Investing

Optimal Capital Allocation Using RAROC and EVA

Equity capital allocation plays a particularly imp...
Usage (application): EVA, RAROC

Short Intro to Economic Value Added - EVA

EVA can be used by investors / shareholders to det...
Usage (application): Economic Value Added - EVA

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Compare with Economic Value Added: Market Value Added  |  PRVit  |  CFROI  |  Economic Margin  |  CVA  |  EBIT  |  EBITDA  |  Cash Ratio  |  Current Ratio  |  Return on Equity  |  DuPont Model  |  Fair Value  |  TSR  |  Cash Flow from Operations  |  Dividend Payout Ratio  |  Cost-Benefit Analysis  |  Relative Value of Growth  |  PEG Ratio

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Mehul Doshi Doshi
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