Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线](查安、德罗特、诺埃尔)

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Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线] (德罗特,诺埃尔,查安)什么是领导补给线? 释义

对于公司来说,有时候从外部选聘经理人员只能作为一时的权宜之计。 斯蒂芬·德罗特(Stephen Drotter)、詹姆士·诺埃尔(James Noel)、拉姆·查安(Ram Charan)三位学者认为,作为长久之计,公司必须从内部构建、发展并保持一条高技能领导力的补给线。 他们为此提出的领导补给线(Leadership Pipeline)模型,通过关注和解释在领导人才培养的各个过渡阶段,那些诸如时间配置、工作技能以及工作价值等发生的至关重要的变化,来帮助公司构建一条管线漏斗型的未来人才补给线。 这一模型还能够帮助理解在不同的层级上对于管理者的不同要求。
 

领导补给线的起源。 历史

领导补给线概念起源于人力资源顾问、培训师沃尔特·马勒于1970年代在通用电气公司所做的研究工作。 马勒界定了成功走上不同层级上的领导所需的各项变化。 结合工作价值的考虑,他认为最为重要的变化是: 在接手新工作时,你认为什么是最重要的? 马勒还开发出了一项十字路模型(Crossroads Model),他认为每一个组织内部都有其特定的领导力十字路口,对领导力的需求也各不相同。 斯蒂芬·德罗特是马勒的学生兼好友,他调整了十字路模型,并将其发展成为领导补给线模型。 后来,高级管理人员发展培训顾问詹姆士·诺埃尔,以及顶级成功规划顾问拉姆·查安教授亦对领导补给线模型的研究做出了贡献。


领导补给线的6条通道。 阶段

  1. 从管理自己到管理他人(From Managing Self to Managing Others)。 管理者进入这一阶段,则显示出他不仅是富有技能的人,而且表现出他具有与人合作的能力。
    • 时间配置的变化: 他们必须学会如何重新配置自己的时间,不仅要保证按时完成自己的工作,还要帮助他人高效作业。

    • 工作技能的变化: 从亲力亲为的动手能力转变成通过他人完成工作的能力。

    • 工作价值的变化: 从独立工作的价值向管理工作的价值转变。

  2. 从管理他人到管理管理者(From Managing Others to Managing Managers)
    • 时间配置的变化: 进入这一阶段,管理者所有工作唯有管理, 无需再理会那些亲力亲为的个人化工作任务,他们一定要把自己从这些工作中解放出来。

    • 工作技能的变化: 在这一阶段,他们必须要驾驭好一些事情,包括为第一阶段的管理位置挑选合适人选;将管理型、领导型的工作任务交给这些一线管理者,并进行管理绩效衡量,提供适当的Coaching[教练]

    • 工作价值的变化: 学会领导一线管理人员尽职于管理性工作,而非技术性工作。

  3. 从一般经理到职能经理(From Managing Managers to Functional Manager)
    • 时间配置的变化: 参与职能经理的业务会议,与其他职能经理合作共事。 为职能部门制定战略,与竞争对手较量。 培育职能内部的可持续性的Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]

    • 工作技能的变化: 培养新的沟通技能,并要能够管理一些陌生领域。 学会思考其他职能部门的想法和需求。 学会与其他职能经理的合作共事,为业务需求做资源竞争。

    • 工作价值的变化: 要视角宽广,眼光长远。

  4. 从职能经理到业务经理(From Functional Manager to Business Manager)
    • 时间配置的变化: 在这一阶段,管理者的主要时间要花在思考上, 不能够再分分秒秒忙个不停,要学会把工作时间用于回顾、思考和分析问题。

    • 工作技能的变化: 业务经理要为底线(Bottom Line)负责, 就具体工作活动而言,不能够只考虑到它的可行性,而是要兼有短期和长期效益的考量。

    • 工作价值的变化: 以分管业务的成功为其工作价值。

  5. 从业务经理到集团经理(From Business Manager to Group Manager)
    • 时间配置的变化: 从时间专注于单一业务到把时间用于领导多项业务和多位业务经理上。

    • 工作技能的变化: 能够:

      • 做战略评估,配置和部署资金。

      • 发掘和培养业务经理。

      • 制定并组织实施组合战略

      • 评估业务是否具有克敌制胜的核心竞争力。

    • 工作价值的变化: 从他人的成功业绩中获得满足感。 视管理组合业务为价值。

  6. 从集团经理到集团高管(From Group Manager to Enterprise Manager)。
    • 时间配置的变化: 为企业发展设定方向,制定运营机制,并结合长期战略,领导好企业日常的运营。 另一个细微的变化是从战略思考向愿景思考转变,从经营思维向全球思维转变。 走出经营管理的细枝末节,完全关注于全局问题上。 知人善任,组建高效团队。

    • 工作技能的变化: 前摄性地开展工作,能够与各种各样的企业外部人员处理好关系。

    • 工作价值的变化: 学会中庸之道(Trade-offs)。 视管理集团、领导全局为价值。

领导补给线的优势。 优点

  • 有助于理解组织不同层级的管理与领导亦各不相同,并逐一指出各个管理层级在时间配置、工作技能以及工作价值的不同之处。
  • 动态模型。 有助于个人前途发展、职业规划、Mentoring[启导]Coaching[教练]、培训、经验评估等。
  • 有助于企业接班人规划和领导力发展。 有助于辨识和防范领导补给线存在的潜在问题。
  • 有助于改进选拔程序。
  • 有助于更为客观的选拔和提升决策。
  • 帮助人力资源部门关注人才培养过渡阶段的各种变化,而不是大而化之地依靠千篇一律的人才培训和发展计划。
  • 提供了人与职错配情况的诊断和修补工具。
  • 有时间感。 补给线提供了界定过渡阶段时间的系统性方法。
  • 高效率。 很少甚至没有时间浪费于仅仅是复制技能。

领导补给线的局限。 缺点

  • 着眼于大型组织。 但是,还能够应用于中等规模的企业,只要将集团领导层去掉,由业务经理担负集团高管的职能。
  • 执行这一模型,需要长期的、持续性的努力。
  • 与应用其他任何模型一样,要避免生搬硬套、机械复制。 通盘考虑,将组织和人员考虑得非常复杂。

参考书: Ram Charan, Stephen Drotter and James Noel - The Leadership Pipeline - How to Build the Leadership-powered Company [中译本《越领导之路:如何建立领导动力机制》,上海交通大学出版社,2002]


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