Tipi Culturali (Deal e Kennedy)

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Tipi Culturali (Deal e Kennedy) Che cosa sono i Tipi Culturali? Descrizione

Terrence Deal ed Allan Kennedy furono fra i primi a scrivere sulla cultura aziendale. Nel loro libro del 1982 Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, definiscono la cultura organizzativa come il modo di fare le cose in un determinato contesto (organizzazione).


Deal e Kennedy sostengono che la cultura aziendale è basata su un collegamento di sei elementi: storia, valori e credenze, rituali e cerimonie, storia, figure eroiche e la rete culturale informale della racconta storie, del chiaccheroni, dei maldicenti, delle spie e dei preti. Il loro modello dei Tipi Culturali distingue quattro tipi di culture aziendali, basati su due elementi:

  • Velocità di Feedback: La velocità con la quale vengono trasmessi i feedback e le ricompense (che permette di capire se le persone fanno un buon lavoro o no).
  • Grado di Rischio: Il livello di assunzione del rischio (grado di incertezza).

La combinazione di questi due elementi risulta in quattro tipi di culture aziendali:

  1. Tipo Tosto Cultura Machista (feedback e ricompense veloci, alto rischio):
    • Lo stress scaturisce dall'alto livello di rischio assunto e quindi dalla variabilità della ricompensa.
    • Concentrazione sul presente, l'individualismo prevale sul lavoro di squadra.
    • Esempi tipici: pubblicità, mediazione, sport.
  2. Lavoratore Duro, Cultura Impegnativa (feedback e ricompense veloci, basso rischio):
    • Lo stress scaturisce dalla mole di lavoro piuttosto che dall'incertezza.
    • Concentrazione su azioni veloci, livelli elevati di energia.
    • Esempi tipici: vendite, ristorazione, aziende di software.
  3. Cultura di Processo (feedback e ricompense lente, basso rischio):
    • Lo stress è generalmente basso, ma può scaturire da politica interne e dalla stupidità del sistema.
    • Concentrazione si particolari ed eccellenza del processo.
    • Esempi tipici: burocrazie, banche, società di assicurazioni, servizi pubblici.
  4. Cultura di Sfida nei Confronti della Propria Azienda (feedback e ricompense lente, alto rischio):
    • Lo stress deriva dall'alto livello di rischio e dal ritardo prima di sapere se le azioni daranno dei frutti o no.
    • Concentrazione nel lungo termine, preparazione e pianificazione.
    • Esempi tipici: aziende farmaceutiche, costruttori di aerei, aziende di ricerca del petrolio.

Referenza Bibliografica: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982)

Referenza Bibliografica: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate Cultures (2000)


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