Tipos de Cultura Corporativa (Deal y Kennedy)

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Tipos de Cultura Corporativa (Deal y Kennedy) ¿Qué son los Tipos de Cultura Corporativa? Explicación

Terrence Deal y Allan Kennedy están entre los primeros en escribir sobre cultura corporativa. En su libro de 1982 Corportate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, ellos definen la cultura organizacional como la forma en que las cosas se hacen por aqui.


Deal y Kennedy proponen que la cultura corporativa se basa en el entrecruce de seis elementos: historia, valores y creencias, rituales y ceremonias, historias, figuras heróicas y la red cultural informal de contadores de cuentos, chismosos, susurradores, espías y sacerdotes. Su modelo de Tipos de Cultura Corporativa distingue cuatro tipos de cultura corporativa, basados en dos elementos:

  • Velocidad de retroalimentación: Cuán rápido son proporcionadasla retroalimentación y las recompensas (a través de las cuales la gente sabe si está haciendo un buen o un mal trabajo).
  • Grado de riesgo: El nivel de riesgo que se toma (grado de incertidumbre).

La combinación de estos dos elementos dan como resultado los cuatro tipos de culturas corporativas:

  1. Cultura Tipo Macho / Tipo dudo (rápida retroalimentación y recompensa, de riesgo elevado):
    • La tensión proviene del alto riesgo existente y del alto potencial de disminuir o aumentar la recompensa.
    • El foco está puesto en lo inmediato, el individualismo prevalece sobre el trabajo en equipo.
    • Ejemplos típicos: publicidad, corretaje, deportes.
  2. Cultura Tipo trabajo duro /  juego duro (retroalimentación y recompensa rápidas, poco riesgo):
    • La tensión proviene de la cantidad de trabajo en lugar de la incertidumbre.
    • Foco puesto sobre la acción de alta velocidad, altos niveles de energía.
    • Ejemplos típicos: ventas, restaurantes, compañías de software.
  3. Cultura de Proceso (retroalimentación y recompensa lentas, poco riesgo):
    • La tensión es generalmente baja, pero puede provenir de las políticas internas y de las deficiencias del sistema.
    • El foco está sobre los detalles y la excelencia del proceso.
    • Ejemplos típicos: burocracias, bancos, compañías de seguros, servicios públicos.
  4. Cultura de Compromiso (retroalimentación y recompensa lentas, de riesgo elevado):
    • La tensión proviene del riesgo elevado y de la demora en saber si las accioens emprendidas han valido la pena.
    • Foco en el largo plazo, la preparación y el planeamiento.
    • Ejemplos típicos: compañías farmacéuticas, fabricantes de aviones, compañías de prospección de reservas de petróleo.

Libro: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - culturas corporativas: Los ritos y los rituales de la empresa de Life (1982)

Libro: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - las nuevas culturas corporativas (2000)


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