Culture Types (Deal and Kennedy)

Knowledge Center

12manage is looking for students. Info

Distinguishing four generic types of corporate culture. Explanation of Culture Types of Deal and Kennedy. (1982)

Culture Types (Deal and Kennedy)What are Culture Types? Description

Terrence Deal and Allan Kennedy were among the first to write about corporate culture. In their 1982 book Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, they define organizational culture as the way things get done around here.

Deal and Kennedy argue corporate culture is based on an interlocking of six elements: history, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, stories, heroic figures and the informal cultural network of storytellers, gossipers, whisperers, spies and priests. Their Culture Types model distinguishes four corporate culture types, based on two elements:

  • Feedback Speed: How quickly are feedback and rewards provided (through which the people are told they are doing a good or a bad job).
  • Degree of Risk: The level of risk taking (degree of uncertainty).

The combination of these two elements results in four types of corporate cultures:

  1. Tough-Guy Macho Culture (Fast feedback and reward, high risk):
    • Stress results from the high risk and the high potential decrease or increase of the reward.
    • Focus on now, individualism prevails over teamwork.
    • Typical examples: advertising, brokerage, sports.
  2. Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture (Fast feedback and reward, low risk):
    • Stress results from quantity of work rather than uncertainty.
    • Focus on high-speed action, high levels of energy.
    • Typical examples: sales, restaurants, software companies.
  3. Process Culture (Slow feedback and reward, low risk):
    • Stress is generally low, but may come from internal politics and stupidity of the system.
    • Focus on details and process excellence.
    • Typical examples: bureaucracies, banks, insurance companies, public services.
  4. Bet-Your-Company Culture (Slow feedback and reward, high risk):
    • Stress results from high risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off.
    • Focus on long-term, preparation and planning.
    • Typical examples: pharmaceutical companies, aircraft manufacturers, oil prospecting companies.

Book: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982) -

Book: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate Cultures (2000) -

Special Interest Group - Culture Types

Special Interest Group (53 members)

Forum - Culture Types  

Here you will find interesting and educational discussions.

  Another Culture Type: the Yes Culture
Schmidt and Rosenberg recommend to establish a "Yes Culture"...
  12 Culture Factors of Drennan? (1 reactions)
Has anyone heard of Drennan and his 12 factors in which you ...
  Innovation in a Target Culture
Many organizations today have a 'target culture', which is c...
  Do Competitive Work Cultures Lead to Better Performance? (2 reactions)
I am searching for information and sources (books or article...
  How to Deal with a Culture of Gossip and Backbiting? (2 reactions)
Hi all, I am in the following situation: - I am the deputy ...
  The Effects of Leadership on Organizational Culture (1 reactions)
Hi, I am currently researching on "The effects of leadership...
  High Performance Work Culture
Of what does a high performance work culture consists...?...
  Culture Types Useful Model (1 reactions)
This model on culture types makes it easy to understand why ...
  Connecting Culture and the Dominant Strategy (2 reactions)
The flaw in the Deal and Kennedy model is that it does not c...
  International Culture Types (3 reactions)
I think that the four culture types model has now become too...

Best Practices - Culture Types

Here you will find the most valuable ideas.

Expert Tips - Culture Types

Here you will find high-quality advice from experts.


Establishing an Organizational Culture of Perpetual Crisis

Corporate Culture Best Practice...

Strategies to Change Employee Habits, Hearts and Heads

Changing Organization Cultures...

Pitfalls and Best Practices in Culture Change

Changing Organizational Cultures, What to DO and what NOT...

Why is Changing an Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment...

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures...

The Importance of Culture in Organizational Performance

Organizational Culture, Corporate Culture, Employee Behavior, Organizational Performance...

7 Mechanisms to Change Corporate Cultures

Change Management, Organizational Change, Culture Change...

PROs and CONs of a Strong Corporate Culture

Corporate Culture Change, Change Management, Organizational Change...

Resources - Culture Types

Here you will find powerpoint presentations, micro-learning videos and further information sources.

Management Across Cultures: Managing in a Global Context

Cross-Cultural Management, Cultural Dimensions, Cultural Intelligence, Multicultural Teams, Global Leadership, Global HR...

Role of Corporate Culture

Culture Change, OD...

What is Corporate Culture

Short Intro...

Introduction to Organizational Culture and Climate

Organizational Culture, Organizational Climate...

5 Strategies to Successfully Manage Cultural Differences

Cultural Differences, Cultural Intelligence, Cross-Cultural Teams, Company Culture, Hofstede...

Innovation Culture: Reducing Fear in Organizations

Innovation Management, Change Management...

What is Corporate Culture? Learn from 4 CEOs

Corporate Culture, Organization Culture, Organizational Culture, Starter for Training / Workshop...

Organizational Culture and Critical Theory

Organizational Culture...

Meeting Culture

Funny Picture...

Macho Culture

Funny Picture...

Culture, Cultural Competence, Cultural Intelligence and the CQ

Cultural Intelligence...

Introduction to Organizational Culture

Initial Understanding of Organizational Culture and Why it Matters to an Organization...

Funny Org Chart Picture

Org. Charts / Culture...

Culture Types Diagram

Corporate Culture...

News about Culture Types Deal Kennedy


News about Corporate Culture


Videos about Culture Types Deal Kennedy


Videos about Corporate Culture


Presentations about Culture Types Deal Kennedy


Presentations about Corporate Culture


Books about Culture Types Deal Kennedy


Books about Corporate Culture


More about Culture Types Deal Kennedy


More about Corporate Culture


Compare with Culture Types: Levels of Culture  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Cultural Dimensions  |  Groupthink  |  Core Group Theory  |  Contingency Theory  |  Change Management Iceberg  |  Change Phases  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Planned Behavior  |  Leadership Continuum  |  Cultural Intelligence

Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Decision-making & Valuation  |  Human Resources

More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here? Sign up for free


About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us / Cite us | Privacy | Suggestions | Terms of Service
© 2019 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V15.1 - Last updated: 22-9-2019. All names ™ of their owners.