are Culture Types? Description
Terrence Deal and Allan Kennedy were among the first to write about
corporate culture. In their 1982 book Corporate Cultures: The Rites and
Rituals of Corporate Life, they define organizational culture as
the way things get done around here.
Deal and Kennedy argue corporate culture is based on an interlocking of
six elements: history, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, stories,
heroic figures and the informal cultural network of storytellers, gossipers,
whisperers, spies and priests. Their Culture Types model distinguishes four
corporate culture types, based on two elements:
- Feedback Speed: How quickly are feedback and rewards provided
(through which the people are told they are doing a good or a bad job).
- Degree of Risk: The level of risk taking (degree of uncertainty).
The combination of these two elements results in four types of corporate cultures:
- Tough-Guy Macho Culture (Fast feedback and reward, high risk):
- Stress results from the high risk and the high potential decrease
or increase of the reward.
- Focus on now, individualism prevails over teamwork.
- Typical examples: advertising, brokerage, sports.
- Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture (Fast feedback and reward, low risk):
- Stress results from quantity of work rather than uncertainty.
- Focus on high-speed action, high levels of energy.
- Typical examples: sales, restaurants, software companies.
- Process Culture (Slow feedback and reward, low risk):
- Stress is generally low, but may come from internal politics and stupidity
of the system.
- Focus on details and process excellence.
- Typical examples: bureaucracies, banks, insurance companies, public
- Bet-Your-Company Culture (Slow feedback and reward, high risk):
- Stress results from high risk and delay before knowing if actions
have paid off.
- Focus on long-term, preparation and planning.
- Typical examples: pharmaceutical companies, aircraft manufacturers,
oil prospecting companies.
Book: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures:
The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982) -
Book: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate
Cultures (2000) -
Culture Types Special Interest Group
Special Interest Group (45 members)
Compare with Culture Types:
Levels of Culture
Organization Cultures | Cultural
Dimensions | Groupthink
| Core Group Theory
| Contingency Theory
| Change Management
Iceberg | Change Phases
| Force Field Analysis
| Planned Behavior
| Leadership Continuum
| Cultural Intelligence
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