Customer Relationship Management[顾客关系管理]

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总结

客户关系管理 - 概要什么是顾客关系管理? 释义

顾客关系管理(Customer Relationship Management, CRM)有不止一种定义, 有的定义偏重信息技术对于CRM的重要性,有的定义强调以顾客为中心的组织构型,有的定义认为CRM实质上是一项功能性战略(市场战略),更有定义将CRM上升至全局性的经营战略。 我们同意艾德·皮伦(Ed Peelen, 2006)的说法,Gartner Group(2004)为CRM所做的定义最为引人入胜: CRM是一项IT化的企业经营战略,通过配置顾客导向的组织构型、采取顾客满意的行为措施、执行以顾客为中心的工作流程,从而实现在提高组织营收与效益的同时最大化顾客的满意度。


由此可以看出,CRM决不仅仅是一项功能性的战略,它确实是事关全局的经营战略。 CRM触及企业的方方面面,如: 营销、销售、IT、物流、财务、生产、研发、人力资源、综合管理,等等。 根据如此定义来执行CRM,对任何组织而言,都是一个不小的挑战。


执行CRM,仅做到增加利润、提高效率(对顾客)是不够的。 真正的CRM,是一种追求顾客亲和的经营战略。作为营销哲学,它的重心是关系,而非交易。与此同时,CRM对组织构型亦提出了以顾客为导向的要求。
 

顾客关系管理的起源。 历史

1980年代的直销极度地依赖于顾客数据库。 北欧学派的克里斯汀·格罗鲁斯(Christan Grönroos)埃弗特·古迈森(Evert Gummesson),以及美国营销大师西奥多·Theodore Levitt最早对此作出了论述。 他们率先对关系营销与交易营销(Transaction Marketing)做了比较研究。 他们概括定义了以关系为中心的组织的特征,并为其提供了相关的市场工具。 1995年,特里西和威尔斯马(Treacy & Wiersema)在著作中提出了三个价值信条。 亲近顾客为其中之一。 CRM在1990年代由基于互联网络的信息管理工具最终转型为全方位的顾客导向的企业经营战略。


顾客关系管理的运用。 应用

  • 致力于实现顾客亲和企业战略的公司。
  • 致力于树立顾客友好企业形象的公司。

顾客关系管理的步骤。 流程

构建顾客关系导向型企业包括以下几项内容:

  1. 坚强有力的顾客导向型领导力
  2. 放眼长远的顾客导向型组织使命
  3. 全心全意的顾客导向型企业目的
  4. 顾客亲和为目标的企业战略。
  5. 充分体现顾客关怀的企业价值观和员工价值观
  6. 充分反映顾客同理心和长期顾客关系的行为标准
  7. 关系导向型的组织文化
  8. 以顾客接触为中心的组织构型。 比较: Co-Creation[共同创造]Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]
  9. 具有顾客同理心和顾客 沟通技能的企业员工。
  10. 能将“软价值”(如Value Profit Chain[价值利润链])与“硬价值”(如Balanced Scorecard[平衡计分卡])联系起来进行管理的操作系统。

顾客关系管理的优势。 优点

  • 就市场竞争而言,与顾客的紧密联系对企业来说有一定程度的保护作用。
  • 拥有大批忠诚顾客,企业的利润率更高。 一方面,新顾客的争取成本较高,代价不菲;另一方面,老顾客很可能增加消费量,回头客很可能对其他商品发生兴趣,产生额外消费。

顾客关系管理的局限。 缺点

  • 实施CRM必须是触一发而动全身,组织内部无一处能够置之度外。
  • 对于CRM的投入可能使组织利润受损。
  • 执行CRM过程中要兼顾可持续的竞争优势,更是难上加难。

顾客关系管理的假定。 前提

  • 企业投之以桃,顾客就会报之以李。
  • 由实践中的战略向顾客亲和战略转型是现实可行的。

顾客满意度的评估。

对于服务性行业来说,有两种方法可以用来评估顾客的满意程度,即顾客满意度模型SERVQUAL法


参考书: Ed Peelen - Customer Relationship Management

参考书: Heskett, Sasser and Schlesinger - The Service Profit Chain [中译本《服务利润链》,机械工业出版社,2005年6月]


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专家提示

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比较: Relation Marketing[关系营销]  |  Value Disciplines[价值信条]  |  Multi Channel Marketing[多渠道营销]  |  Analytical CRM[分析型顾客关系管理]  |  Operational CRM[运营型顾客关系管理]  |  Customer Satisfaction Model[顾客满意度模型]  |  SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]


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