Kundrelationshantering (Kundrelationsmarknadsföring, CRM)

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Kundrelationshantering, Kundrelationsmarknadsföring, CRM - översiktVad är Kundrelationshantering, Kundrelationsmarknadsföring, CRM? Beskrivning

CRM Kundrelationshantering kan definieras på många olika sätt. Några personer understryker betydelsen av informationsteknik i användningen av CRM, några argumenterar för att det står för en kundcentrerad organisation, någon tror att CRM är en funktions marknadsföringsstrategi, andra betonar att CRM i första hand är en affärsstrategi. Vi samtycker med Peelen (Kundrelationshantering, Kundrelationsmarknadsföring, CRM, 2006) att den definition som framlagts av Gartner Group (2004) är attraktiv: CRM är en IT-möjliggörande affärsstrategi, med ett resultat som optimerar lönsamhet-, intäkt- och kundtillfredsställelse genom att organisera med hjälp av kundsegment som vårdar kundtillfredsställandebeteenden och genomför kundcentrerade processer.


CRM är en affärsstrategi och är mer än en funktions strategi. Den berör organisationen i sin helhet: marknadsföra, försäljning, DEN, logistik, ekonomi, produktion, FoU, timme, hantering, etc. När vi väl definierat CRM, är det direkt uppenbart att genomföra CRM i sin helhet är en lätt skrämmande utmaning.


Att skapa lönsamma och mycket effektiva (kundkontakts-) processer är inte nog tillräckligt. För verklig Kundrelationshantering krävs en kundrelationsstrategi, en relationsmarknadsföringsfilosofi, i stället för en transaktionfokuserad marknadsföringsfilosofi, såväl som en kundorientering av hela organisationen.
 

Ursprunget till Kundrelationshantering. Historia

Under 80-talet passerade utvecklingen av Direktmarknadsföring som var starkt beroende av kunddatabaser. Christan Grönroos och Evert Gummesson från den ”Nordiska skolan” och Theodore Levitt förtjänar speciella omnämnaden i denna artikel. De var de första som beskrev Relationsmarknadsföring kontra transaktionsmarknadsföring. Också de definierade egenskaperna hos relationscentrerade organisationer, och de erbjöd motsvarande marknadsföringsverktyg. År 1995 så beskrev Treacy och Wiersema (1995) deras tre Värde Discipliner. Kundintimitet/-relationer var en av dem. Som ett resultatet omformades CRM i slutet på 90-talet från ett webbbaserat kontakthanterings- och informationsverktyg, som svaret på en kundorienterad strategi.


Användningen av Kundrelationshantering. Användningsområden

  • Företag som vill skapa en kundrelationsstrategi.
  • Företag som önskar att åstadkomma en kundvänlig image.

Stegen i Kundrelationshantering. Process

Följande områden formar de huvudsakliga beståndsdelarna för att skapa en kundrelationsorienterad organisation:

  1. Starkt kundorienterat ledarskap.
  2. Uppdraget att vara en relationsorienterad organisation som siktar på det långsiktiga interagerandet.
  3. Företagets syftet inriktat mot kunden.
  4. Den huvudsakliga strategin är att vinna kundrelationen.
  5. Företagets värderingar och de anställdas värderingar fokuserar på att att bry sig om sina kunder.
  6. Beteendekoder och standarder reflekterar kundinlevelsen och önskemålet om att bygga långsiktiga relationer och engagemang.
  7. En relationsorienterad organisatorisk kultur.
  8. En organisation, som sätter kundkontakten i centrum. Jämför: Samskapande Prahalad och Ramaswamy Business Process Reengineeringmetoden Hammer och Champy.
  9. Personalen: empatiska kommunikationfärdigheter som att bry sig om kunder.
  10. System som kan hjälpa till att förbinda och klara av hårda värderingar med de mjuka värderingarna, som i Värdfördelskedja, Värdevinstkedjan och Balanserade Styrkort Kaplan och Norton.

Styrkor med Kundrelationshantering. Fördelar

  • Starka relationer med beställare erbjuder ett högt skydd för mothandlingar från konkurrenter.
  • Lojala kunder kan vara mer lönsamma. Vinnandet av nya kunder är dyra och tillfredsställda kunder kan köpa mer, nöjda kunder kan komma med extra kunder, Etc.

Begränsningar med Kundrelationshantering. Nackdelar

Antaganden med Kundrelationshantering. Villkor

  • Om vi är snälla mot våra kunder, kommer de att vara detsamma mot oss.
  • Att förändra från den nuvarande strategiska disciplinen till en kundrelationsdisciplin är fullt möjligt.

Bedöma kundtillfredsställelsenivåer

Två tekniker som bedömer den aktuella nivån på kundnöjdhet, är Kundnöjdhetsmodell och SERVQUAL-metoden för tjänsteföretag.


Bok: Ed Peelen - Kundrelationshantering, Kundrelationsmarknadsföring, CRM

Bok: Heskett, Sasser och Schlesinger - The Service Profit Chain


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