Klantrelatiemanagement (CRM)

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Samenvatting

Klantrelatiemanagement (CRM) - overzichtWat is Klantrelatiemanagement (CRM)? Beschrijving

Customer Relationship Management kan op een aantal manieren worden gedefinieerd. Sommige mensen beklemtonen de betekenis van informatietechnologie in CRM, sommigen beweren dat het een klantgerichte organisatie inhoudt, anderen geloven†dat CRM een functionele (marketing) strategie is, weer anderen benadrukken dat CRM in de eerste plaats een bedrijfsstrategie is. Wij zijn het met Peelen (Customer Relationship Management, 2006) eens dat de definitie van de Gartner†Groep†(2004) aantrekkelijk is: CRM is een door IT mogelijk gemaakte bedrijfsstrategie, waarvan de uitkomsten de winstgevendheid, omzet en klantentevredenheid optimaliseren door een bedrijf te organiseren rondom klantsegmenten, door klanttevredenheid bevorderend gedrag te koesteren en door klantgerichte processen te implementeren.


CRM is een bedrijfsstrategie en is mťťr dan een functionele strategie. Het raakt de organisatie als geheel: marketing, verkoop, IT, logistiek, financiŽn, productie, R&D, HRM, management, enz. Als wij CRM op deze wijze definiŽren, dan is het onmiddellijk duidelijk dat het implementeren van volledige CRM een duizelingwekkende uitdaging is.


Het creŽren van winstgevende en zeer efficiŽnte (client-facing) processen is niet genoeg. Voor echt Customer Relationship Management is een customer intimacy strategie, een relatiemarketing filosofie eerder dan een transactiemarketing filosofie, evenals een cliŽnt-oriŽntatie van de gehele organisatie vereist.
 

Oorsprong van Customer Relationship Management. Geschiedenis

In de jaren 80 ontstond Direct Marketing (Directe Marketing), gebaseerd op klantenbestanden. Christan GrŲnroos en†Evert Gummesson van de ĄNoordse Schoolď en Theodore Levitt verdienen een speciale vermelding in dit artikel. Zij waren de eersten die† Relatiemarketing gingen beschrijven tegenover transactiemarketing. Ook bepaalden zij de kenmerken van relatiegerichte organisaties en zij verstrekten de corresponderende marketinghulpmiddelen. In 1995, beschreven Treacy en Wiersema (1995) hun drie Waardedisciplines. Customer Intimacy was er ťťn van. Dientengevolge werd CRM in de jaren 90 omgezet van een web gebaseerd contactmanagement- en informatiehulpmiddel, naar†een klantgerichte strategie.


Gebruik van Customer Relationship Management. Toepassingen

  • Bedrijven die een customer intimacy strategie willen realiseren.
  • Bedrijven die een klantvriendelijk imago willen bewerkstelligen.

Stappen in Customer Relationship Management. Proces

De volgende aspecten vormen tesamen de belangrijkste elementen om een klantenrelatie-georiŽnteerde organisatie te creŽren:

  1. Sterk klantgericht leiderschap.
  2. De missie†om een relatie-georiŽnteerde organisatie te willen zijn gericht op†lange termijn interactie.
  3. Het corporate doel is gericht op de klant.
  4. De belangrijkste strategie is te winnen op†klant intimiteit.
  5. De waarden van het bedrijf en de werknemerswaarden concentreren zich op het geven om klanten.
  6. De gedragsnormen reflecteren†empathie met†klanten en de wens om lange-termijn relaties te bouwen en commitment.
  7. Een relatie-georiŽnteerde organisatiecultuur.
  8. Een organisatie die klantencontacten in het centrum zet. Vergelijk: Co-Creatie, Herontwerpen van Bedrijfsprocessen.
  9. Mensen: communicatievaardigheden, empathisch, het†om klanten geven.
  10. Systemen die kunnen helpen om harde waarden te verbinden met zachte waarden, zoals de Value Profit Chain en de†Balanced Scorecard-methode.

Sterke punten van Customer Relationship Management. Voordelen

  • De sterke relaties met cliŽnten bieden een graad van bescherming aan tegen acties van concurrenten.
  • Loyale klanten kunnen meer winstgevend zijn. Het winnen van nieuwe klanten is duur, tevredengestelde klanten zouden meer kunnen kopen,†gelukkige klanten kunnen extra klanten aanbrengen, enz.

Beperkingen van Customer Relationship Management. Nadelen

  • Het implementeren van CRM op een holistische manier is geen sinecure.
  • Het profijtelijk maken†van grote CRM investeringen is moeilijk.
  • Het bereiken van een Concurrentievoordeel met CRM is zelfs nog moeilijker.

Veronderstellingen van Customer Relationship Management. Voorwaarden

  • Als wij goed voor klanten zijn, zullen zij ook goed voor ons zijn.
  • Het†veranderen van de huidige strategische discipline naar een customer intimate discipline is mogelijk.

Het†beoordelen van†klanttevredenheidsniveaus.

Twee technieken om het daadwerkelijke niveau van klanttevredenheid te beoordelen zijn het Klanttevredenheidsmodel en SERVQUAL-methode voor dienstverlenende bedrijven.


Boek: Ed Peelen - Customer Relationship Management†

Boek: Heskett, Sasser en Schlesinger - The Service Profit Chain


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Vergelijk met Customer Relationship Management: Relatiemarketing † |† Waardedisciplines (Waardeproposities)  |† Multi-channelmarketing † |† Analytische CRM † |† Operationele†CRM † |† Klanttevredenheidsmodel  |† SERVQUAL  |† Co-Creatie


Keer terug naar Management Discipline: Communicatie & Vaardigheden  |† Marketing  |† Strategie


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