Customer Relationship Management

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Customer Relationship Management - descrizione Che cosa è il Customer Relationship Management? Descrizione

Il Customer Relationship Management può essere definito in un certo numero di modi. Alcuni sottolineano l'importanza della tecnologia dell'informazione nel CRM, alcuni sostengono che CRM significa organizzazione incentrata sul cliente, alcuni credono che il CRM sia una strategia funzionale (di marketing), altri danno risalto al fatto che il CRM è soprattutto una strategia di business. Noi siamo d'accordo con Peelen (Customer Relationship Management, 2006) sul fatto che la definizione del Gartner Group (2004) è molto interessante: Il CRM è una strategia di business resa possible dal IT, i cui risultati ottimizzano la redditività, le vendite e la soddisfazione del cliente organizzando i clienti in segmenti, promuovendo comportamenti volti a soddisfare il cliente e implementando processi incentrati sul cliente.


Il CRM è una strategia di business ed è più di una strategia funzionale. Tocca l'organizzazione nell'insieme: marketing, vendite, IT, logistica, finanza, produzione, R&S, HR, direzione, eccetera. Se definiamo così il CRM, è immediatamente chiaro che implementare un CRM al 100% è una sfida scoraggiante.


Creare processi client-facing redditizii e molto efficienti non è abbastanza. Per implementare il vero Customer Relationship Management sono richiesti una strategia di intimità con il cliente, una filosofia di marketing relazionale piuttosto che una filosofia di marketing transazionale e un orientamento al cliente da parte di tutta l'organizzazione.
 

Origine del Customer Relationship Management. Storia

Gli anni 80 hanno visto la nascita del Direct Marketing, basato pesantemente sulle banche dati dei clienti. Christan Grönroos e Evert Gummesson della “Scuola Nordica„ e Theodore Levitt meritano una menzione speciale in questo articolo. Sono stati i primi a descrivere il Relation Marketing contro il marketing transazionale. Hanno anche definito le caratteristiche delle organizzazioni incentrate sulle relazioni ed hanno fornito i corrispondenti strumenti di marketing. Nel 1995, Treacy e Wiersema hanno descritto le loro tre Discipline del Valore. L'intimità con il cliente era una di esse. Di conseguenza, il CRM si è trasformato negli anni 90 da uno strumento gestionale ed informativo del contatto web-based, ad una strategia orientata al cliente.


Uso del Customer Relationship Management. Applicazioni

  • Aziende che desiderano realizzare una strategia di intimità con il cliente.
  • Aziende che desiderano dare un'immagine amichevole dei loro rapporti con il cliente.

Fasi nel Customer Relationship Management. Processo

I punti seguenti compongono gli elementi principali necessari per creare un'organizzazione orientata ai rapporti col cliente:

  1. Leadership fortemente orientata al cliente.
  2. La mission di essere una organizzazione orientata alle relazioni che mira a mantenere i rapporti nel lungo termine.
  3. Lo scopo aziendale è puntato sul cliente.
  4. La strategia principale è di vincere una certa intimità con il cliente.
  5. I Valori aziendali ed i valori degli impiegati si focalizzano sul dare attenzioni ai clienti.
  6. Gli standard comportamentali riflettono la empatia del cliente ed il desiderio di costituire rapporti ed impegni di lunga durata.
  7. Una cultura organizzativa orientata alle relazioni.
  8. Un'organizzazione che mette il contatto con il cliente al centro. Paragonare: Co-Creation Prahalad Ramaswamy, Business Process Reengineering.
  9. Le persone: abilità comunicative empatiche, cura dei clienti.
  10. Sistemi che possono contribuire a collegare e gestire i  valori hard con i valori soft, quali la Catena del Profitto e la Balanced Scorecard.

Punti di Forza del Customer Relationship Management. Benefici

  • Rapporti consolidati con i clienti offrono un grado di protezione contro le azioni dei concorrenti.
  • I clienti fedeli possono essere più redditizii. Acquisire nuovi clienti è costoso; i clienti soddisfatti possono comprare di più e i clienti felici possono portare altri clienti, ecc.

Limitazioni del Customer Relationship Management. Svantaggi

  • Implementare il CRM in un modo olistico è un pò scomodo.
  • Fare grandi investimenti redditizii sul CRM è difficile.
  • Realizzare un vantaggio competitivo sostenibile con il CRM è ancora più difficile.

Presupposti del Customer Relationship Management. Circostanze

  • Se siamo buoni per i clienti, essi saranno buoni per noi.
  • Passare dall'attuale disciplina strategica verso una disciplina di intimità col cliente è possibile.

Valutare i livelli di soddisfazione del cliente

Due tecniche per valutare il livello reale di felicità del cliente sono il Modello di Soddisfazione del Cliente ed il SERVQUAL per le aziende di servizi.


Referenza Bibliografica: Peelen Ed - Customer Relationship Management

Referenza Bibliografica: Heskett, Sasser e Schlesinger - La Catena del Profitto nei Servizi


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Paragonare al Customer Relationship Management: Relation Marketing  |  Discipline del Valore  |  Multi Channel Marketing  |  Analytical CRM  |  CRM Operativo  |  Modello di Soddisfazione del Cliente  |  SERVQUAL  |  Co-Creation Prahalad Ramaswamy


Ritornare alla Disciplina di Gestione: Comunicazione & Abilità  |  Marketing & Vendite  |  Strategia e Innovazione


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