Crisis Management[危机管理]

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总结

很明显,没有哪个企业希望“面对重大业务挫折,引来媒体普遍关注”(危机)。 媒体报道导致的公众关注常常给企业的生产经营带来多重负面影响,如财务影响、政治影响以及政府关系影响。 现实的价值损失让人担忧,然而,更让人忧心的却是,企业未能按照公众媒体的意愿驾驭处理危机。 所谓危机管理(Crisis Management),就是要在危机时刻做出正确反应(预警化、结构化以及特殊化)。


危机管理一般法则

  1. 事先准备意外事故计划(成立危机管理小组,演练应对各种危机情境;接到危机通知后,危机管理小组能够在短时内迅速运作)

  2. 内部立刻和清楚地宣布唯一的人讲话对危机与外界是危机队员)

  3. 迅速运作(危机爆发后的第一个小时至关重要,因为媒体往往会抢在这一时间获取企业危机信息)。

  4. 聘用危机管理顾问(包括公共关系顾问、企业形象顾问等,他们的客观建议非常重要)。

  5. 提供准确的、正确的信息(切忌提供虚假信息,一旦被发现造假后果很严重,即便是对内发布)。

  6. 当决定应对措施时,不仅要考虑短期损失,还要考虑长远影响。

企业内部的行政管理人员,不管处在哪一位置,都有义务管理危机,要将它放在日常工作来抓。 能够成功应对那些重大的危机事件,如对企业价值创造、收入来源、运营支出、股票价格、竞争地位以及生产业务产生重大破坏的危机事件,才是对管理人员能力的真正考验。 比较: Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]
最有效的危机管理是防患于未然,在危机爆发之前、对企业业务造成损失之前,就能够发现危机,并迅速处理解决危机。 如果能够做到这一点,企业的利益相关者以及社会公众就决不可能通过媒体知道企业的变故。


制定业务连续性方案(Business Continuity Plan

如果危机已然发生,它对企业核心利益相关者的影响将不可避免,这时候业务连续性方案将显得非常重要,它将帮助企业把破坏和损失减小到最低限度。 制定这样一项方案听起来任务艰巨,其实它就是一份普通的企业文件。 它包括以下一些方面:找出运营流程中对企业经营业务至关重要的环节,然后设计一个或多个环节失灵后如何继续运营的方案,以及如何在利益相关者知情后与其进行沟通的方案。 非常重要却又常被忽略的一点是,一定要对业务连续性方案进行测试。
有了业务连续性方案,在遇到危机时,企业就能够处于一个较为有利的位置从容应对危机,从而财务损失和商业影响。 除此以外,制定业务连续性方案还会有一个间接影响,就是: 企业管理人员对那些有可能造成重大损失的危险处境更加敏感, 由此,当危机真正发生时,他们能够快速、高效应对,从容解决危机。


参考书: Laurence Barton - Crisis in Organizations II

参考书: Steven Fink - Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable


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