Core Competence[核心竞争力]
(Hamel Prahalad)

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自内而外战略。 Hamel和Prahalad的Core Competence[核心竞争力]解析。

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Core Competence[核心竞争力]Hamel和Prahalad的核心竞争力(Core Competence)模型是一个著名的企业战略模型,其战略流程的出发点是企业的核心力量。


自内而外的企业战略(Inside-out Corporate Strategy)

传统的自外而内(Outside-in)战略(例如Five Forces[五力模式]),总是将市场、竞争对手、消费者置于战略设计流程的出发点上。 核心竞争力理论恰好与其相反,认为从长远来看,企业的竞争优势取决于企业能否以低成本、并以超过对手的速度构建核心竞争力。 核心竞争力能够造就料想不到的产品。 竞争优势的真正源泉是企业围绕其竞争力整合、巩固工艺技术和生产技能的能力,据此,小企业能够快速调整适应变化了的商业环境。 核心竞争力是具体的、固有的、整合的或应用型的知识、技能和态度的各种不同组合。


Hamel和Prahalad在他们的《企业核心竞争力》(The Core Competence of the Corporation,1990)一文中,驳斥了传统的组合战略。 根据他们的观点,把战略事业单元(SBU)放在首位,是一个明显的时代错误。 Hamel和Prahalad认为,应该围绕共享的竞争核心来构建企业。 比较: Horizontal Integration[横向整合]


SBU的设置必须要有助于强化发展企业的核心竞争力。 企业的中心部门如财务不应该作为一个独立层面,它要能够为企业的战略体系链接、竞争力构建增加价值。
 

识别核心竞争力的三个测试

  1. 为企业提供通向广阔的多样化市场的潜在通道。
  2. 使企业能够从生产顾客所需产品中获得巨大回报。
  3. 竞争者难以复制。

构建核心竞争力

核心竞争力的构建是通过一系列持续提高和强化来实现的(比较: Kaizen[改善]), 它应该成为企业的战略核心。 从战略层面来讲, 它的目标就是帮助企业在设计、发展某一独特的产品功能上实现全球领导地位。
 

企业高管在SBU的帮助下,一旦识别出所有的核心竞争力,就必须要求企业的项目、人员都必须紧紧围绕这些竞争核心。 企业的审计人员的职责就是要清楚围绕企业竞争核心的人员配置、数量以及质量。 肩负企业核心竞争力的人员应该被经常组织到一起,分享交流思想、经验。


核心僵化?

必须注意不能使企业的核心竞争力发展成为僵化的核心。 对于企业来说,学习培养一个竞争核心难,遗忘一个竞争核心同样困难。 企业不遗余力地构建了一项核心竞争力,有时候却又可能忽略了新的市场环境和需求, 在这种情况下,企业则面临着固步自封的危险。。。


参考文章: C.K. Prahalad, Gary Hamel - The CC of the Corporation -

参考书: Michael Goold, Andrew Campbell - Corporate-Level Strategy -

参考书: C.K. Prahalad, Gary Hamel - Competing for the Future [中译本《竞争大未来》,台湾智库股份有限公司,1995;北京昆仑出版社,1998]-


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