Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程](Cooper)

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产品开发的组织和管理。 Robert G. Cooper的Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]模型解析。 (‘88)


什么是阶段-关卡流程模型? 释义

阶段-关卡流程(Stage-gate)模型是由Robert G. Cooper提出的,用以高效管理产品开发流程的一种方法。 它是新产品开发的蓝图, 它涵盖了从开发理念到产品生产的整个过程, 它有一系列预设的步骤,即阶段(Stage)。 每一个阶段都包含有一整套跨功能的、平行的具体任务,在被获准执行下一个阶段以前, 必须顺利完成现阶段的任务、活动。 每一个阶段的入口被称之为: 关卡(Gate)。 这些关卡通常是一些正式的会议,对流程进行控制,并发挥以下作用:

  1. 质量控制;
  2. 检查站: 准备情况检查、必须符合的标准检查、应该符合的标准检查。
  3. 下一阶段行动标志。

Stage-Gate®现为Cooper博士领衔的加拿大产品开发研究院(Product Development Institute Inc)的注册商标。


阶段-关卡流程法的起源。 历史

阶段-关卡流程法的问世,基于Cooper博士对60多家企业真实案例的研究,以及大量来自一线管理人员的经验和建议。 阶段-关卡流程一词首次出现于Cooper在《市场管理杂志》(Journal of Marketing Management,1988)上发表的一篇文章中, 但是,在他的早期书作中,还可以找到阶段-关卡流程理论的更早版本,如他在1986年出版的 《决胜新产品》(Winning at New Products)。


阶段-关卡流程法的运用。 应用

  • 产品创新与开发。
  • 产品组合管理。

阶段-关卡流程法的步骤。 流程

阶段-关卡流程模型具有5个常规步骤,最新版本又在五步骤之前增加了一个引入步骤——发现(Discovery, 包括发现新机会、产生新理念的准备工作设计。

  1. 观察(Scoping。 快速地对每一个项目进行初步调查。 通过案头研究提供信息,限制项目数量。
  2. 构建产品框架(Builiding the Business Case。 进行更为细致的市场调研和技术研究, 产品框架必须包括产品功能定义、产品开发理由以及产品项目方案。
  3. 开发(Development。 新产品详细的设计和开发,并行简单的产品测试。 同期亦要敲定产品生产方案与市场方案。
  4. 测试与确认(Testing and Validation。 在实验室、生产一线以及市场上展开大规模产品测试。
  5. 投产、上市(Launch。 大规模生产、推广与销售。 产品/运营、市场投放、分销渠道、质量保证都是这一步的工作, 亦要执行投产上市后的评估。

当然,在现实中,非常有必要为各步骤提出更为具体细致的执行方案和操作建议。


罗伯特G. Cooper的Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]模型

阶段-关卡流程法的优势。 优点

  • 组织完善的创新开发活动能够成为组织的一项竞争优势。
  • 加速产品开发。 因为产品寿命周期的不断缩短,阶段-关卡流程法有其显得必要。
  • 提高了新产品的市场成功机率。 能够及早避免不良产品开发项目,帮助修正其开发方向。
  • 将大公司复杂的产品研发过程进行合理细分。
  • 提供开发纲要,有助于关注优先项目、优先流程。
  • 对市场因素进行了有效整合。
  • 跨功能。 融入了组织内不同功能人员的参与和投入。 尽管没有单独的研发或市场阶段, 但已新增了发现阶段。
  • 能与各种绩效管理工具有效嫁接,如Net Present Value[净现值]等等。

阶段-关卡流程法的局限。 缺点

  • 尽管提到在每一阶段内各任务活动平行展开,但是从根本上来看,该方法显然用的是瀑布流水似的前后承继法。 一些产品创新专家提出,产品开发活动一定要是环形平行结构。
  • 很长一段时间,阶段-关卡流程法缺少市场发现、寻找创新理念的过程。
  • 在开发组织与开发创造之间存在一种紧张关系, 但是对于产品创新来说,少了它们哪一个都不行。

参考书: Robert G. Cooper - Product Leadership - Pathways to Profitable Innovation -


小组 - 产品开发


小组 (28名成员)


论坛 - 产品开发  

关于这个主题的讨论:产品开发。


  Stage-Gates are Not Limitative
The stage gate model is a widely used model, not only for product innovation but also for all projec (...)
 
 
 
 
  Involving End Users in the Innovation Process
Is it reasonable to involve end users in the innovation process within the company (during product d (...)
 
 
 
 
  A Good Time to Innovate
I am not surprised that innovation has become a dominant buzzword in the world of business today. Th (...)
 
 
 
 
  Stage-Gate Process for Quality
Has anyone applied the stage-gate process in an actual new product development for the specific purp (...)
 
 
 
 
  Students' Lack of Innovation
Many students simply study study study. Many students coming out of school have simply done what th (...)
 
 
 
 
  Iteration in Stage-Gate Model (Dr Cooper)
This model is good for new product development but its execution appears to be sequential in nature. (...)
 
 
 
 
  Innovation versus Improvisation
What separates innovation from improvisation? (...)
 
 
 
 
  Ten Commandments for Intrapreneurs
Besides a staged innovation process, intrapreneurs are also important in successful innovation. Norm (...)
 
 
 
 
  Next Generation Stage Gate Approach
Whereas most Stage Gate models have a qualitative, non-financial orientation, Strat/Assess is a funn (...)
 
 
 
 
  Agenda for a Stage-Gate Meeting?
What does the process for a typical Stage-Gate meeting look like? What would be the typical agenda (...)
 
 
 
 
  Process for New Product Introduction
What is the typical process that a company should follow to introduce a new product in the market? W (...)
 
 
 
 

最佳实践 - 产品开发

在这里,您将找到过去最有价值的讨论。


  My Views on Innovation in Countries
1. The political leadership has the major say to promote innovation since it controls the environmen (...)
 
 
 
 
  Tip: 10 Red Flags for Innovation
Interesting statement for discussion in Business Week: "There's no surefire way to guarantee succes (...)
 
 
 
 
  Innovation Leadership
The main challenge to improve innovation is how to develop leaders which stimulate and sustain innov (...)
 
 
 
 
  Innovation in Emerging Economies
How do we create an enabling environment for innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship in emerging (...)
 
 
 
 
  The 5 Elements Innovation Framework (Bouquet et al.)
In an interesting article, IMD professors Bouquet, Barsoux and Wade are criticizing existing innovat (...)
 
 
 
 
  Estabish a Distributed Innovation Group
In an article entitled "Teaming Up to Crack Innovation and Enterprise Integration, James Cash, Micha (...)
 
 
 
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Product Development

在这里,您将找到专家的建议。


 

Success Factors for Stage-Gate Implementation

Imlementing Stage-Gate Processes (...)
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches (...)
 
 
 

Stage-Gate Implementation CSFs

Implementing the Stage-Gate Process (...)
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Avoiding Innovation Traps (...)
 
 
 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stages and Gates

Innovation Management, Stage-Gate Implementation (...)
 
 
 

Benefits of Outsourcing Innovation

Improving Innovation Performance (...)
 
 
 

Setting up a Stage-Gate Organization. Best Practices

Stage-Gate Roles and Responsibilities (...)
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning (...)
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation (...)
 
 
 

Innovating Bottom-up or Top-down

Corporate Innovation Approaches (...)
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy (...)
 
 
 

Cooper's Innovation Diamond (tm)

More Factors Leading to Succesful Product Innovation (...)
 
 
 

Another Product Launch Method: 4 I's

Stage-Gate Alternatives (...)
 
 
 

When Should a Firm Consider to Outsource Innovation?

Outsourcing Best Practices, Innovation (...)
 
 
 

Innovating Under the Radar

Avoiding 5 Obstacles to Major Innovation (...)
 
 
 

Alternatives to Stage-Gate Approach

Innvation Management (...)
 
 
 

Pitfalls and Obstacles in Product Development Strategy

Product Development, Product Portfolio Management (...)
 
 
 

Control and Measurement Method

Tracking Stage-Gate Performance (...)
 
 
 

The Mandate of NPD and the Degree of Change that is Required

New Product Development, NPD Process Improvement (...)
 
 
 

Alternate Product Launch Method

Stage-Gate Alternatives (...)
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures (...)
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

Best Practices, Innovation Team Management (...)
 
 
 

Characteristics of Organizations with an IT-driven Business Transformation Strategy

IT-driven Strategy, IT-led Strategy, Competitive Potential, Innovation Accelerators, Disruptive Innovation (...)
 
 
 

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation (...)
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes (...)
 
 
 

The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

Innovation, Increasing Organizational Innovativeness (...)
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

(Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership (...)
 
 
 

A Closer Look at How Change and Innovation Decisions are Made

Decision-making on Organizational Change, Innovation Decision-making, Contingent, Participative Decision-making (...)
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation (...)
 
 

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