Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程](Cooper)

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总结

什么是阶段-关卡流程模型? 释义

阶段-关卡流程(Stage-gate)模型是由Robert G. Cooper提出的,用以高效管理产品开发流程的一种方法。 它是新产品开发的蓝图, 它涵盖了从开发理念到产品生产的整个过程, 它有一系列预设的步骤,即阶段(Stage)。 每一个阶段都包含有一整套跨功能的、平行的具体任务,在被获准执行下一个阶段以前, 必须顺利完成现阶段的任务、活动。 每一个阶段的入口被称之为: 关卡(Gate)。 这些关卡通常是一些正式的会议,对流程进行控制,并发挥以下作用:

  1. 质量控制;
  2. 检查站: 准备情况检查、必须符合的标准检查、应该符合的标准检查。
  3. 下一阶段行动标志。

Stage-Gate®现为Cooper博士领衔的加拿大产品开发研究院(Product Development Institute Inc)的注册商标。


阶段-关卡流程法的起源。 历史

阶段-关卡流程法的问世,基于Cooper博士对60多家企业真实案例的研究,以及大量来自一线管理人员的经验和建议。 阶段-关卡流程一词首次出现于Cooper在《市场管理杂志》(Journal of Marketing Management,1988)上发表的一篇文章中, 但是,在他的早期书作中,还可以找到阶段-关卡流程理论的更早版本,如他在1986年出版的 《决胜新产品》(Winning at New Products)。


阶段-关卡流程法的运用。 应用

  • 产品创新与开发。
  • 产品组合管理。

阶段-关卡流程法的步骤。 流程

阶段-关卡流程模型具有5个常规步骤,最新版本又在五步骤之前增加了一个引入步骤——发现(Discovery, 包括发现新机会、产生新理念的准备工作设计。

  1. 观察(Scoping。 快速地对每一个项目进行初步调查。 通过案头研究提供信息,限制项目数量。
  2. 构建产品框架(Builiding the Business Case。 进行更为细致的市场调研和技术研究, 产品框架必须包括产品功能定义、产品开发理由以及产品项目方案。
  3. 开发(Development。 新产品详细的设计和开发,并行简单的产品测试。 同期亦要敲定产品生产方案与市场方案。
  4. 测试与确认(Testing and Validation。 在实验室、生产一线以及市场上展开大规模产品测试。
  5. 投产、上市(Launch。 大规模生产、推广与销售。 产品/运营、市场投放、分销渠道、质量保证都是这一步的工作, 亦要执行投产上市后的评估。

当然,在现实中,非常有必要为各步骤提出更为具体细致的执行方案和操作建议。


罗伯特G. Cooper的Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]模型

阶段-关卡流程法的优势。 优点

  • 组织完善的创新开发活动能够成为组织的一项竞争优势。
  • 加速产品开发。 因为产品寿命周期的不断缩短,阶段-关卡流程法有其显得必要。
  • 提高了新产品的市场成功机率。 能够及早避免不良产品开发项目,帮助修正其开发方向。
  • 将大公司复杂的产品研发过程进行合理细分。
  • 提供开发纲要,有助于关注优先项目、优先流程。
  • 对市场因素进行了有效整合。
  • 跨功能。 融入了组织内不同功能人员的参与和投入。 尽管没有单独的研发或市场阶段, 但已新增了发现阶段。
  • 能与各种绩效管理工具有效嫁接,如Net Present Value[净现值]等等。

阶段-关卡流程法的局限。 缺点

  • 尽管提到在每一阶段内各任务活动平行展开,但是从根本上来看,该方法显然用的是瀑布流水似的前后承继法。 一些产品创新专家提出,产品开发活动一定要是环形平行结构。
  • 很长一段时间,阶段-关卡流程法缺少市场发现、寻找创新理念的过程。
  • 在开发组织与开发创造之间存在一种紧张关系, 但是对于产品创新来说,少了它们哪一个都不行。

参考书: Robert G. Cooper - Product Leadership - Pathways to Profitable Innovation


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