Stage-Gate (Cooper)

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Managing product development. Explanation of the Stage-Gate model of Robert G. Cooper. ('88)

Contents

  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

What is the Stage-Gate model? Description

The Stage-Gate method from Robert G. Cooper is an approach that can be used to make the product development process more effective. It is a blueprint for managing the new product process. From an idea to launching a product. In a number of predetermined steps, or stages. Each stage consists of a set of certain cross-functional and parallel activities which must be successfully completed prior to obtaining management approval to proceed to the next stage of product development. The entrance to each stage is called: a gate. These gates, which are normally meetings, control the process and serve as:

  1. Quality control
  2. Go / Kill check-points. Readiness-checks, Must-Meet criteria, and Should-Meet criteria.
  3. Marker for action plan for the next phase.

Stage-Gate is a registered trademark of Product Development Institute Inc.


Origin of the Stage-Gate methodology. History

The method is based on the experiences, suggestions and observations of a large number of managers and firms in over 60 cases as observed by Robert Cooper. The term "Stage-Gate" first appeared in an article by Cooper in The Journal of Marketing Management, 3, 3, Spring 1988. An even earlier version can be found in Cooper's book: "Winning at New Products", 1986.


Usage of Stage-Gate. Applications

  • Product Development, Innovation.
  • Component of Portfolio Management.

Steps (stages) in the Stage-Gate model. Process

The Stage-Gate process is preceded by a Discovery stage, which was added in a later version of the original model which had only 5 phases. It contains pre-work designed to discover opportunities and to generate new ideas.

  1. Scoping. A quick, preliminary investigation of each project. Provides inexpensive information by desk research to enable narrowing the number of projects.
  2. Build the Business Case. A much more detailed investigation by primary marketing and technical research. The business case must include a product definition, a product justification and a project plan.
  3. Development. A detailed design and development of the new product, along with some simple product tests. Also a production plan and a market launch plan are developed.
  4. Testing and Validation. Extensive product tests in both the marketplace, the lab and the plant.
  5. Launch. Beginning of full production, marketing and selling. Market launch, production / operations, distribution, quality assurance. Post-Launch Reviews are performed.

In reality, it is necessary to drill down further into the sub-activities to provide detailed and operational instructions for the innovation team.


Robert G. Cooper's Stage-Gate model

Strengths of Stage-Gate methodology. Benefits

  • Well-organized innovation can be a source of competitive advantage.
  • Accelerated product development. Necessary because of shortening product life cycles.
  • Increased success chance of new products. Prevents poor projects early and helps to redirect them.
  • The model breaks down the complex innovation process in large corporations in a number of smaller pieces.
  • Provides overview, which enables prioritization and focus.
  • Integrated market-orientation.
  • Cross-functional. Involves input and participation of employees from various functions in the organization. No separate R&D or Marketing Stage. But see above Discovery.
  • Can be combined with various performance metrics, such as Net Present Value, etc.

Limitations of Stage-Gate. Disadvantages

  • Although within a stage activities can be conducted in parallel, the Stage-Gate approach is basically sequential (waterfall). Some innovation experts believe that product development should actually be organized in parallel, using loops.
  • The original Stage-Gate framework did not deal with the Discovery process and the activities to create new ideas.
  • A tension exists between organizing and creativity. Both are very important within innovation.

Book: Robert G. Cooper - Product Leadership - Pathways to Profitable Innovation -


Stage-Gate Forum
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  Stage Gate Models Need to Be Quantified and Be Made Measurable
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  Iteration in Stage-Gate Model (Dr Cooper)
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  Stage-Gates are Not Limitative
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  Stage-Gate Process for Quality
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  My Views on Innovation in Countries
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  A Good Time to Innovate
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  Students' Lack of Innovation
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  Innovation in Emerging Economies
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  Innovation versus Improvisation
What separates innovation from improvisation?...
     
 
  Estabish a Distributed Innovation Group
In an article entitled "Teaming Up to Crack Innova...
     
 
  Ten Commandments for Intrapreneurs
Besides a staged innovation process, intrapreneurs...
     
 
  Agenda for Stage-Gate Meeting?
What is the draft process for a Stage-Gate ...
     
 

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Best Practices - Stage-Gate Premium
  Involving End Users in the Innovation Process
Is it reasonable to involve end users in the innov...
     
 
  Innovation Leadership
The main challenge to improve innovation is how...
     
 
  Tip: 10 Red Flags for Innovation
Interesting statement for discussion in Business W...
     
 

Expert Tips - Stage-Gate Premium
 

Success Factors for Stage-Gate Implementation

In his article “Implementing a Stage-Gate Proce...
Usage (application): Imlementing Stage-Gate Processes
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book “Product Leadership: Creating and L...
Usage (application): Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Stage-Gate Implementation CSFs

So far Stage-Gate method has been widely recognize...
Usage (application): Implementing the Stage-Gate Process
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Note that Stage Gate is focused mainly on the inno...
Usage (application): Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stages and Gates

Advantages:
+ Stage - Gate processes h...
Usage (application): Innovation Management, Stage-Gate Implementation
 
 
 

Benefits of Outsourcing Innovation

Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger ...
Usage (application): Improving Innovation Performance
 
 
 

Setting up a Stage-Gate Organization. Best Practices

To obtain successful outcomes from Stage-Gate it i...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Roles and Responsibilities
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for m...
Usage (application): R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types...
Usage (application): Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Bottom-up or Top-down

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In their article New Business Models in Emerging M...
Usage (application): Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Cooper's Innovation Diamond (tm)

Also look at Cooper's Innovation Diamond (2005) wi...
Usage (application): More Factors Leading to Succesful Product Innovation
 
 
 

Another Product Launch Method: 4 I's

I use a Process of 4 I's when coaching plan...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

When Should a Firm Consider to Outsource Innovation?

According to Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlma...
Usage (application): Outsourcing Best Practices, Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Under the Radar

If somewhere below in a large corporation an innov...
Usage (application): Avoiding 5 Obstacles to Major Innovation
 
 
 

Alternatives to Stage-Gate Approach

An alternative product development technique calle...
Usage (application): Innvation Management
 
 
 

Pitfalls and Obstacles in Product Development Strategy

Although product development can be an important g...
Usage (application): Product Development, Product Portfolio Management
 
 
 

Control and Measurement Method

To deeply understand performance and effects of St...
Usage (application): Tracking Stage-Gate Performance
 
 
 

The Mandate of NPD and the Degree of Change that is Required

When using the Stage-Gate process, a strategic imp...
Usage (application): New Product Development, NPD Process Improvement
 
 
 

Alternate Product Launch Method

Steelcase CEO James P. Hackett describes the follo...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Schein (as cited by Bertagni et al., 2010) tries t...
Usage (application): Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader,...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Characteristics of Organizations with an IT-driven Business Transformation Strategy

Today organizations need to move quickly through a...
Usage (application): IT-driven Strategy, IT-led Strategy, Competitive Potential, Innovation Accelerators, Disruptive Innovation
 
 
 

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Since 50 years, the Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Re...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

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The probability of success of a major innovatio...
Usage (application): Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
 
 
 

The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

New research by Hewlett, Marshall and Sherbin prov...
Usage (application): Innovation, Increasing Organizational Innovativeness
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that ...
Usage (application): (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

A Closer Look at How Change and Innovation Decisions are Made

Kim, T (2015) elaborates on decision making on "no...
Usage (application): Decision-making on Organizational Change, Innovation Decision-making, Contingent, Participative Decision-making
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A Futurethink Innovation Tracker Survey (2006) men...
Usage (application): Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 

Resources - Stage-Gate Premium

Improving Product Development Processes to Manage Development Risk

To create new products, firms employ a product dev...
Usage (application): Innovation of Product Development Processes
 

How to Manage Creativity in Organizations

This presentation elaborates on the management of ...
Usage (application): Innovation Management, Managing Creativity, Managing Creative People, Fostering Creativity in Organizations, Creativity
 

3 Key Benefits of Cross-Functional Teams for Innovation

In innovation you need a team of people with the r...
Usage (application): Innovation, Team Work, Multicultural Teams, Bureaucracy, Multi-Functional Teams
 

Introduction to Managing Creativity and Innovation

Presentation about Innovation and Creativity, ther...
Usage (application): Innovation Management, Managing Innovation, Managing Innovative Employees, Managing Creative Employees
 

Concept Testing and Conjoint Analysis for New Products

Presentation about concept testing and conjoint an...
Usage (application): Concept Test, Concept Statement, Conjoint Analysis, Product Design, Product Innovation
 

Stage-Gate Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic...
Usage (application): Innovation Management
 
 

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Compare with Stage-Gate: Forget Borrow Learn  |  Portfolio Management  |  DICE Framework  |  Team Management Profile  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Brainstorming  |  Six Thinking Hats  |  Product Life Cycle


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