Bridging Epistemologies[桥接认识论]
(Cook Brown)

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投稿人: Tom de Geytere

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总结

Cook Brown Bridging Epistemologies[桥接认识论]模型

什么是桥接认识论(Bridging Epistemologies)? 释义

S.D.N. Cook和J.S. Brown认为,目前大量关于组织知识、智慧资产、知识型组织以及知识工作的研究和努力,都是基于对知识属性的单一的、传统的理解。 所知认识论(Epistemology of Posession视知识为人们静态拥有的事物。 然而,这一观点显然解释不了个人和组织的认知(Knowing实践。


视认知(Knowing)为行动的观点,催生了所行认知论(Epistemology of Posession。 所知认识论(Epistemology of Posession)认为外显知识(Explicit Knowledge高于默会知识(Tacit Knowledge个人知识(Individual Knowledge高于团体知识(Group Knowledge

当前组织研究的局限正是由于所知认识论的这些观点,以及对认知实践缺乏关注造成的。 如果将外显知识、默会知识、个人知识、团体知识视为四个互不相同且平等独立的知识形态,组织建设将会更有成效。 这四种知识每一种都具有其他知识所没有的特点, 动态的认知(Knowing)和静态的知识(Knowledge)实际上一种互补的、互相促进的关系, 而非互相竞争。


换句话说,团体行动的效果决不会被团体中的个人行动所削弱。 基于这种认识,Cook和Brown把知识分为四种类型: 即个人的外显知识、默会知识和团体的外显知识和默会知识,并解释了它们是如何通过积极的认知过程(Process of Knowling)桥接在一起的。 这种桥接四种不同类型知识的实践过程即被Cook和Brown称作为知识创造的“衍化的舞蹈”(Generative Dance。 这一比喻的言下之意就是,知识创造不仅仅依赖于静态的知识存量,更取决于我们运用知识工具的能力和实践。


Cook和Brown认为,知识是认知的工具,而认知才是我们与这个物质社会接触的主要方面,新的知识、新的认知方法便产生于知识与认知的互相作用过程中。


桥接认识论的起源。 历史

Cook和Brown的桥接认识论模型有以下两个理论来源:

  • Polanyi对默会知识和外显知识所做的区别(1983): 默会知识是看不见的、不可言喻的知识, 是个人的化的和具体情景相联的知识,不易标准化和沟通交流。 主观认识、直觉和预感即属于这一知识类型,它包括认知的和技巧的成分。 外显知识能够用词句、数字来表达,通过一定形式来沟通交流,如固化的数据、科学公式、标准化的程序以及普遍适用的原则 。
  • Spender的认识多元论(1998): (1)客观知识是认知事物的一种方式,(2)只有当外显知识与默会知识结合在一起时,它们的一些方面才能成为可知。

桥接认识论反对传统的视知识为静态资产的观点,为知识增加了动态成分。 这一理论类似于Nonaka和TakeuchiSECI模型,后者视知识创造为各种知识元素的转化过程。
 

桥接认识论的运用。 应用

桥接认识论帮助我们在组织架构下认识知识,从而更加准确地理解组织成员的共同认知过程。 这一模型巩固加强了产品创新与过程创新之间的联系, 对于产品创新发展来说,重要的不仅仅是在个人和组织中传播的知识形态, 组织成员的相互合作,以及在他们工作对象上反映出来的认知方式同等重要。


桥接认识论模型范例

以面包店为例(参见右图), 相关知识工具有:

  • 概念(Concepts):以个人的认知行动所形成的外显知识,如抽象概念、理论的认知等,这里指个人所了解的制作面包的知识, 如用多少面粉,加多少盐。
  • 技能(Skills):个人所拥有的默会知识,包括难以言谈的经验、窍门等等, 这里指个人做面包的能力、经验。
  • 故事(Stories):团体所拥有的外显知识,通过隐喻以说故事的方式来表达工作实践的知识、经验等, 这里指面包店所拥有的如何做面包的知识、经验。
  • 风格(Genres): 团体所具有的默会知识,在团体中默默形成的各种意义、类别, 这里指面包店所特有的制作面包的风格。

面包店的学徒要学会如何做面包,就必须以“认知即行动”(Knowing as Action)为核心, 部分地或全面地占有这四种知识。


桥接认识论的假设。 条件

  • 不同的知识类型之间不可以互相转换(如个人知识和默会知识),各个类型独立存在。

参考文章: Cook and Brown - Bridging Epistemologies.


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